California Department of Fish and Wildlife

A Bibliography of Feral, Stray, and Free-Roaming Domestic Cats in Relation to Wildlife Conservation

Compiled by Ronald M. Jurek, Wildlife Biologist

Nongame Bird and Mammal Program, Wildlife Management Division


Reprinted from:  Jurek, R. M. 1994. A bibliography of feral, stray, and free-ranging domestic cats in relation to wildlife conservation.  California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame Bird and Mammal Program Rep. 94-5.  24 pp.

INTRODUCTION

Domestic cat (Felis catus) predation is a significant cause of wildlife mortality in many parts of the world. Diseases of domestic cats pose serious threats to native species, as well. The damaging effects of cats on wildlife are particularly severe on oceanic islands, in "islands" of wildlife habitat in urbanized areas, and in other wild lands and open spaces near built-up areas. Predation by domestic cats has caused, or significantly contributed to, the extinction of many animal species around the world. In many areas, feral and free-roaming cats are a continual threat to endangered wildlife.

The domestic cat has become the most numerous pet in the U.S. Numbers of domestic cats have escalated in recent decades, resulting in increasing numbers of house-dwelling cats that hunt outdoors and of abandoned or wild-born cats that subsist in the wild. Another consequence of this overpopulation is the euthanasia of millions of unwanted and stray cats annually.

In many countries, governmental agencies and conservation organizations have been attempting to protect native wildlife by eradicating or reducing feral cat populations on islands and mainland ecosystems by trapping, shooting, poisoning, and introducing pathogens. Municipalities and private groups are attempting to control domestic cat overpopulation by other means, including licensing, restricting commercial breeding, educating to encourage responsible pet ownership, and promoting pet sterilization. In Europe and the U.S, some groups opposed to euthanasia of captured stray and feral cats are encouraging and implementing "neuter-and-release" programs to attempt to curtail population growth or to stabilize and protect local populations in "controlled colonies".

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide wildlife biologists, land managers, and other interested persons with a representative array of information sources on the ecology and control of feral and free-roaming domestic cats and on their damaging effects on wildlife. Included are 340 references on ecological investigations and other biological studies; on "neuter-and-release" management; on population control efforts; on the cat as predator, disease source, or prey; and on cat depredation and disease control.

Many individuals have assisted in the search for references. Special appreciation is extended to Mark Drew, DVM, Texas A&M; Dr. John Coleman, Univ. of Wisconsin; Ms. Janet Didion, California Department of Parks and Recreation; and Ms. Vikki Avara, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame Bird and Mammal Program.

Additional Online Articles Other Bibliographies
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A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FERAL, STRAY, AND FREE-ROAMING DOMESTIC CATS IN RELATION TO WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

Ablett, P. 1981.
Public reaction to control. Pages 60-62 in The Ecology and Control of Feral Cats. Proc. Symposium, 23-24 Sep. 1980, Univ. London. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

Adamec, R. E. 1976.
The interaction of hunger and preying in the domestic cat (Felis catus): an adaptive hierarchy? Behav. Biol., 18:263-272.

Amarasekare, P. 1993.
Potential impact of mammalian nest predators on endemic forest birds of western Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Conserv. Biol., 7(2):316-324.

Anderson, D. W., J. O. Kieth, G. R. Trapp, F. Gress, and L. A. Moreno. 1989.
Introduced small ground predators in California brown pelican colonies. Colonial Waterbirds, 12(1):98-103.

Anderson, G. D., and P. R. Condy. 1974.
A note on the feral house cat and house mouse on Marion Island. S. African J. of Antarctic Res., 4:58-61.

Andrews, R. D., and D. H. Ferris. 1966.
Relationships between movement patterns of wild animals and the distribution of leptospirosis. J. Wildl. Manage., 30(1):131-134.

Anon. 1931.
Catalina cats and quail. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 17(4):450-451.

Anon. 1936.
Here is an indictment of old "Tabby". Calif. Conservationist, 1(1):18.

Anon. 1974.
Predation and other problems caused by uncontrolled and feral companion animals. Amer. Humane Assoc. 35 pp.

Apps, P. J. 1966.
Home ranges of feral cats on Dassen Island. J. Mammal., 67:199-200.

Apps, P. J. 1983.
Aspects of the ecology of feral cats on Dassen Island, South Africa. S. African J. Zool., 18:393-399.

Apps, P. J. 1986.
A case study of an alien predator (Felis catus) introduced on Dassen Island: selective advantages. S. African J. of Antarctic Res., 16(3):118-122.

Ashmole, N. 1963.
The biology of the Wideawake or Sooty Tern on Ascension Island. Ibis, 1036: 297-365.

Atzert, S. P. 1971.
A review of sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080): its properties, toxicology, and use in predator and rodent control. Special Scientific Rep. Wildlife, No. 146. U.S. Dep. of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Austin, O. L., Jr. 1932.
An interesting Great Horned Owl capture. Bird Banding, 3(1):33.

Baldwin, J. A. 1980.
The domestic cat, Felis catus L., in the Pacific islands. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 4:57-66.

Baron, A., C. N. Stewart, and J. M. Warren. 1957.
Patterns of social interaction in cats (Felis domesticus). Behaviour, 11:55-56.

Bayly, C. P. 1976.
Observations on the food of the feral cat (Felis catus) in an arid environment. S. Austral. Naturalist, 51:22-24.

Bayly, C. P. 1978.
A comparison of the diets of the red fox and the feral cat in an arid environment. S. Austral. Nat., 53:20-28.

Beadle, M. 1977.
The cat. Simon and Shuster, New York. 251 pp.

Beaver, B. 1980.
Veterinary aspects of feline behavior. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, MO.

Beier, P., and R. H. Barrett. 1993.
The cougar in the Santa Ana Mountain Range, California. Final Rep., Orange County Coop. Mountain Lion Study, Orange County, CA.

Bell, B. D. 1974.
Mangere Island. New Zealand Wildl. Serv., Wildlife — A Review, 5:31-34.

Bell, B. D. 1989.
The removal of problem animals from islands. Pages 97-104 in Burbidge, A., ed. Australian and New Zealand Islands: Nature Conservation Values and Management, Proc. of a Techn. Workshop, Barrow Is., W. Australia. Occ. Pap. 2/89.

Berkeley, E. P. 1982.
Maverick cats: encounters with feral cats. Walker and Co., New York, NY.

Berruti, A. 1981.
The status of the Royal Penguin and Fairy Prion at Marion Island, with notes on feral cat predation on nestlings of large birds. The Cormorant, 9:123-128.

Berruti, A. 1986.
The predatory impact of feral cats Felis catus and their control on Dassen Island. S. African J. Antarctic Res., 16(3):123-127.

Bloomer, J. P., and M. N. Bester. 1991.
The effects of hunting on population characteristics of feral cats on Marion Island. S. African J. Wildl. Res., 21:97-102.

Bloomer, J. P., and M. N. Bester. 1992.
Control of feral cats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Indian Ocean. Biol. Conserv., 60:211-219.

Boddicker, M. L. 1983.
House cats (feral). Prevention and control of wildlife damage. R. M. Timm, ed. Univ. of Nebraska. Pp. C-25-29. [rev. 1994 edition]

Bradshaw, J. W. S. 1992.
The behavior of the domestic cats. C.A.B. International, Wallinford, U.K.

Bradt, G. W. 1949.
Farm cat as predator. Michigan Conserv., 18(4):23-25.

Brockie, R. E., L. L. Loope, M. B. Usher, and O. Hamann. 1988.
Biological invasions of island nature reserves. Biological Conservation, 44:9-36.

Brothers, N. P. 1982.
Feral cat control on Tasman Island. Austral. Ranger Bull., 2:9.

Brothers, N. P. 1984.
Breeding, distribution and status of burrow-nesting petrels at Macquarie Island. Austral. Wildl. Res., 11:113-131.

Brothers, N. P., and G. R. Copson. 1988.
Macquarie Island flora and fauna management — interpreting progress and predictions for the future. Pap. Proc. Royal Soc. Tasmania, 122:129-135.

Brothers, N. P., I. J. Skira, and G. R. Copson. 1974.
Biology of the feral cat (Felis catus L.) on Macquarie Island. Austral. Wildl. Res., 1:425-436.

Brown, P. B. 1989.
The swift parrot, Lathamus discolor (White). Dep. Lands, Parks and Wildl., Tasmania.

Brunner, H., P. L. Stevens, and J. R. Backholer. 1980.
Introduced mammals of Victoria. In Wallis, R. L., and F. D. Panetta, eds. The effects of introduced animals and plants in Australia. Proceeding of a symposium held at Rusden C. A. E., July 1980.

Bryant, S. L. 1991.
The ground parrot, Pezoporus wallicus, in Tasmania: distribution, density, and conservation status. Dep. Parks, Wildl., and Heritage, Tasmania.

Calhoon, R. E., and C. Haspel. 1989.
Urban cat populations compared by season, subhabitat and supplemental feeding. J. Animal Ecol., 58:321-328.

Caras, R. 1973.
Meet wildlife enemy no. 2. National Wildl., 11:30-31.

Catling, P. C. 1988.
Similarities and contrasts in the diets of foxes, Vulpes vulpes, and cats, Felis catus, relative to fluctuating prey populations and droughts. Austral. Wildl. Res., 15:307-317.

Childs, J. E. 1986.
Size-dependent predation on rats (Rattus norvegicus) by house cats (Felis catus) in an urban setting. J. Mammal., 67:196-198.

Childs, J. E. 1990.
Urban cats: their demography, population density, and owner characteristics in Baltimore, Maryland. Anthrozoos, 4:234-244.

Childs, J. E. 1991.
And the cat shall lie down with the rat. Natural History, 6:16-19.

Christian, D. P. 1975.
Vulnerability of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, to predation by domestic cats. Amer. Midland Naturalist, 93(2):498-502.

Churcher, P. B., and J. H. Lawton. 1987.
Predation by domestic cats in an English village. J. Zool., London, 212:439-455.

Churcher, P. B., and J. H. Lawton. 1989.
Beware of well-fed felines. Natural History, 98(7):40-46. [Letters: 98(9):4; 98(11):4].

Clark, W. C., and J. C. McKenzie. 1982.
North Island Kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli: a new host for Toxocari cati in New Zealand. J. Parasitol., 68:175-176.

Clery, L. 1989.
Cat control: a review of local authority policy and attitudes. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Herts. 10 pp.

Clifton, M. 1992.
Until there are none, spay/neuter one. The Animals' Agenda, May 1992:12-19.

Coleman, J. S., and S. A. Temple. 1993.
A survey of owners of free-ranging domestic cats in rural Wisconsin. Wildl. Soc. Bull., 21:381-390

Coleman, J. S., and S. A. Temple. 1994.
Effects of neutering on growth of free-ranging domestic cat populations. J. Applied Ecol., (In review).

Coleman, J. S., and S. A. Temple. 1994.
Dispersion and home ranges of rural free-ranging domestic cats. J. Mammal., (In review).

Coleman, J. S., and S. A. Temple. 1994.
Patterns of activity in free-ranging domestic cats. J. Mammal., (In review).

Collier, G., L. W. Kaufman, R. Kanarek, and J. Fagen. 1978.
Optimization of time and energy contraints in the feeding behavior of cats: a laboratory simulation. Carnivore, 1:34-41.

Collins, G. H., and W. A. G. Charleston. 1979.
Studies on Sarcocystis species: 1. Feral cats as definitive hosts for sporozoa. New Zealand Vet. J., 27:80-84.

Coman, B. J. 1972.
A survey of the gastro-intestinal parasites of the feral cat in Victoria. Austral. Vet. J., 48:133-136.

Coman, B. J. 1978.
The ecology and control of foxes and feral cats in Australia. Pages 159-171 in Postgraduate Committee in Veterinary Science, Proceedings. Univ. of Sydney.

Coman, B. J. 1991.
The ecology and control of feral cats in Australia. Pages 70-74 in Potter, C., ed. Proceedings of a workshop, 8-9 May 1991, Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Coman, B. J., and H. Brunner. 1972.
Food habits of the feral house cat in Victoria. J. Wildl. Manage., 36(3):848-853.

Coman, B. J., E. H. Jones, and M. A. Driesen. 1981.
Helminth parasites and arthropods of feral cats. Austral. Vet. J., 57:324-327.

Coman, B. J., E. H. Jones, and H. A. Westbury. 1981.
Protozoan and viral infections of feral cats. Austral. Vet. J., 57:319-323.

Comfort, A. 1956.
Maximum ages reached by domestic cats. J. Mammal., 37(1):118-119.

Concannon, P. W., and V. N. Meyers-Wallen. 1991.
Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 198:1214-1225.

Condy, P. R., G. D. Anderson, J. Heijnen, and F. Smit. 1975.
Notes on an efficient cat trap fitted with a remote signalling device. Zool. Afr., 10:103-107.

Cooper, J., and P. R. Condy. 1988.
Environmental conservation at the subantarctic Prince Edward Islands: a review and recommendations. Environ. Conserv., 15(4):317-326.

Copley, P. 1991.
Feral and domestic cats in South Australia. Pages 53-59 in Potter, C., ed. Proceedings of a workshop, 8-9 May 1991, Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Copson, G. R. 1991.
Cats: a Tasmanian perspective. Pages 30-32 in Potter, C., ed. Proceedings of a workshop, 8-9 May 1991, Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Corbett, L. K. 1978.
A comparison of the social organisation and feeding ecology of domestic cats (Felis catus) in two contrasting environments in Scotland. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 3:269.

Cronin, P. M. 1979.
The untouchables. Vet. Practice, 11(10):5-6.

Cronin, P. 1981.
Handling feral cats in the surgery. Pages 86-88 in The Ecology and Control of Feral Cats. Proc. Symposium, 23-24 Sep. 1980, Univ. London. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

Cuffe, D. J. C., J. E. Eachus, O. F. Jackson, P. F. Neville, and J. C. Remfry. 1983.
Ear-tipping for identification of neutered feral cats. Vet. Record, 112:129.

Dards, J. L. 1978.
Home ranges of feral cats in Portsmouth Dockyard. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 3:242-255.

Dards, J. 1981.
Habitat utilisation by feral cats in Portsmouth Dockyard. Pages 30-46 in The Ecology and Control of Feral Cats. Proc. Symposium, 23-24 Sep. 1980, Univ. London. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

Davies, W., and R. Prentice. 1980.
The feral cat in Australia. Wildlife in Australia, 17:20-32.

Davis, D. E. 1957.
The use of food as a buffer in a predator-prey system. J. Mammal., 38(4):466-472.

Delroy, L. B. 1974.
Flinders Island wallaby. S. A. Naturalist [Austral.], 49(1):15.

Delroy, L. B., E. J. Radbone, A. C. Robinson, and M. Hewett. 1986.
The breeding and re-establishment of the brush-tailed bettong, Bettongia penicillata, in South Australia. Austral. Wildl. Res., 13:387-396

Derenne, P. L. 1976.
Notes sur la biologie du chat haret de Kerguelen. Mammalia, 40:532-595.

Dilks, P. J. 1979.
Observations on the food of feral cats on Campbell Island. New Zealand J. Ecol., 2:64-66.

Djerassi, C., A. Isreal, and W. Jochle. 1973.
Planned parenthood for pets? Bull. Atomic Scientists, 29:10-19.

Dobson, A. P. 1988.
Restoring island ecosystems: the potential of parasites to control introduced mammals. Conserv. Biol., 2(1):31-39.

Domm, S., and J. Messersmith. 1990.
Feral cat eradication on a barrier reef island, Australia. Atoll Res. Bull., No. 338:1-4.

Donald, R. L. 1992.
Should feral cats be euthanized? HSUS, Shelter Sense, 15(5):3-7.

Drost, C. A., and G. M. Fellers. (In press).
Handbook for the removal of non-native animals. USDI, National Park Service, The Natural Resources Report Series.

Doucet, G. J. 1973.
House cat as predator of snowshoe hare. J. Wildl. Manage., 37(4):591.

Dubey, J. P. 1973.
Feline toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis: a survey of domiciled and stray cats. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 162:873-877.

Eason, C. T., and C. M. Frampton. 1991.
Acute toxicity of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) baits to feral cats. Wildl. Res., 18(4):445-449.

Ebenhard, T. 1988.
Introduced birds and mammals and their ecological effects. Swedish Wildl. Res., 13:1-107.

Eberhard, T. 1954.
Food habits of Pennsylvania house cats. J. Wildl. Manage., 18(2):284-286.

Edwards, H. A. 1919.
Losses suffered by breeding birds in southern California. Condor, 21:65-68.

Einarsen, A. S. 1956.
Determination of some predator species by field signs. Oregon State Monographs, Studies in Zoology, No. 10. Oregon State College, Corvallis. 34 pp.

Elton, C. S. 1953.
The use of cats in farm rat control. Brit. J. Animal Behaviour, 1:151-155.

Enard, C. 1979.
Stray cat control with oral contraceptives. Animalia, 6(24):2.

Erasmus, B. H. 1979.
Control of the feral cat Felis catus (Linnaeus 1758) population on Marion Island with feline panleucopaenia. M.S. thesis, Univ. of Pretoria. 115 pp.

Erlinge, S., et al. 1984.
Can vertebrate predators regulate their prey? Amer. Naturalist, 123(1):125-133.

Errington, P. L. 1936.
Notes on food habits of the southern Wisconsin house cats. J. Mammal., 17(1):64-65.

Fagen, R. M. 1978.
Domestic cat demography and population genetics in a midwestern U.S.A. metropolitan area. Carnivore, 1(1):60-67.

Feldman, B. M., and T. H. Carding. 1974.
Free-roaming urban pets. Health Service Report, 88:956-962.

Ferrel, C. M., H. R. Leach, and D. F. Tillotson. 1953.
Food habits of the coyote in California. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 39(3):301-341.

Ferris, D. H., and R. D. Andrews. 1965.
Leptospira pomona in the feral cat. Amer. J. Vet. Res., 26:373-379.

Figley, W. K., and L. W. VanDruff. 1974.
The ecology of nesting and brood rearing by suburban mallards. Pages 87-93 in Noyes and Progulske (eds.). A symposium on wildlife in an urbanizing environment. Cooperative Extension Service, Univ. Mass. Planning and Resource Development Series 28, Holdsworth Natural Resources Center. 128 pp.

Figley, W. K., and L. W. VanDruff. 1982.
The ecology of urban mallards. Wildlife Monogr., No. 81.

Fitzgerald, B. M. 1980.
Feeding ecology of the feral house cat in New Zealand. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 4:67-71.

Fitzgerald, B. M. 1988.
Diet of domestic cats and their impact on prey populations. Pages 123-150 in Turner, D. C., and P. Bateson, eds. The domestic cat: the biology of its behaviour. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 222 pp.

Fitzgerald, B. M. 1990.
House cat. Pages 330-348 in King, C. M., ed. The handbook of New Zealand mammals. Oxford Univ. Press.

Fitzgerald, B. M. 1990.
Is cat control needed to protect urban wildlife? Environ. Conserv., 17(2):168-169.

Fitzgerald, B. M. (in press).
Family Felidae. In Moore, B., ed. New Zealand Mammals. Kyushu and Queensland Univ. and CSIRO Div. of Wildl. and Ecology. A series of collaborative papers on socio-ecology of feral cats in Yathong Nature Reserve, 1987-1990.

Fitzgerald, B. M., W. B. Johnson, C. M. King, and P. J. Moors. 1984.
Research on Mustelids and cats in New Zealand. WRLG Res. Review No. 3. Wildl. Res. Liaison Group, Wellington. 22 pp.

Fitzgerald, B. M., and B. J. Karl. 1979.
Foods of feral house cats (Felis catus L.) in forest of the Orongorongo Valley, Wellington. New Zealand J. Zool., 6:107-126.

Fitzgerald, B. M., and B. J. Karl. 1986.
Home range of feral house cats (Felis catus L.) in forest of the Orongorongo Valley, Wellington, New Zealand. New Zealand J. Ecol., 9:71-81.

Fitzgerald, B. M., B. J. Karl, and C. R. Veitch. 1991.
The diet of feral cats (Felis catus) on Raoul Island, Kermadec group. New Zealand J. Ecol., 15:123-129.

Fitzgerald, B. M., and C. R. Veitch. 1985.
The cats of Herekopare Island, New Zealand; their history, ecology and effects on birdlife. New Zealand J. Zool., 12:319-330.

Forbush, E. H. 1916.
The domestic cat. Economic Biology Bulletin, 2. Mass. State Board of Agric.

Franti, C. E., and J. F. Kraus. 1974.
Aspects of pet ownership in Yolo County, California. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 164(2):166-171.

Frenkel, J. K. 1973.
Toxoplasma in and around us. Bioscience, 23:343-352.

Furet, L. 1990.
The population of feral cats of Amsterdam Island. Mammalia, 54:445-450.

Gellatley, J. 1985. T
The behaviour of feral cats. Undergraduate thesis, Univ. of Reading.

George, W. G. 1974.
Domestic cats as predators and factors in winter shortages of raptor prey. Wilson Bull., 86:384-396.

George, W. G. 1978.
Domestic cats as density independent hunters and "surplus killers". Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 3:282-287.

George, W. G., and M. George. 1979.
Population densities and ownership patterns of preying cats in rural America. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 3:317-324.

Gibb, J. A., C. P. Ward, and G. D. Ward. 1969.
An experiment in the control of a sparse population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Science, 12:509-534.

Gibb, J. A., C. P. Ward, and G. D. Ward. 1978.
Natural control of a population of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), for ten years in the Kourarau enclosure. New Zealand Dep. of Scientific and Industrial Res., DSIR Bull., 223. 89 pp.

Gill, D. 1975.
The feral house cat as predator of varying hare. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 89:78-79.

Gilson, A., T. P. Salmon, and M. S. Kelly. 1987.
The potential for feral cat control through cooperation. Trans. Western Section, The Wildlife Society, 23:46-49.

Gnam, R. S. 1990.
Conservation of the Bahama Parrot. American Birds, 44(1):32-36.

Gnam, R., and A. Burchsted. 1991.
Population estimates for the Bahama Parrot on Abaco Island, Bahamas. J. Field Ornithol., 62(1):139-146.

Goldschmidt-Rotschild, B. Von, and P. LÜps. 1976.
Untersuchungen zur Nährungs-Ökologie "verwilderter" Hauskatzen im Kanton Bern (Schweiz). Revue Suisse Zool., 83:723-735.

Gordon, G. 1991.
Feral cats in Queensland. Pages 38-44 in Potter, C., ed. Proceedings of a workshop, 8-9 May 1991, Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Gregory, G., and B. Munday. 1976.
Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian Midlands and King Island. Austral. Vet. J., 52:317-320.

Griffiths, A. O., and A. Silverberg. 1975.
Stray animals: their impact on a community. Modern Veterinary Practice, 56:255-256.

Grinnell, J. 1914.
Bird life as a community asset. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 1(1):20-23.

Hall, H. F., and M. R. Pelton. 1979.
Abundance, distribution, and biological characteristics of free-roaming house cats in northeastern Tennessee. Carnivore, 2(1):26-30.

Hamilton, J. B., R. S. Hamilton, and G. E. Mestler. 1969.
Duration of life and causes of death in domestic cats: influence of sex, gonadectomy, and inbreeding. J. Gerontology, 24:427-437.

Hammond, C. 1981.
Long term management of feral cat colonies. Pages 89-91 in The Ecology and Control of Feral Cats. Proc. Symposium, 23-24 Sep. 1980, Univ. London. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire.

Harrison, G. H. 1992.
Is there a killer in your house? Nat. Wildl., 30(6):10-13.

Hart, B. L., and R. E. Barrett. 1973.
Effects of castration on fighting, roaming and urine spraying in adult male cats. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 163:290-292.

Hart, B. L., and L. Cooper. 1984.
Factors related to urine spraying and fighting in prepubertal gonadectomized male and female cats. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 184:1255-1258.

Haspel, C., and R. E. Calhoon. 1989.
Home ranges of free-ranging cats (Felis catus) in Brooklyn, New York. Canadian J. Zool., 67(1):178-181.

Haspel, C., and R. E. Calhoon. 1990.
The interdependence of humans and free-ranging cats in Brooklyn, New York. Anthrozoos, 3:155-161.

Haspel, C., and R. E. Calhoon. 1993.
Activity patterns of free-ranging cats in Brooklyn, New York. J. Mammal., 74(1):1-8.

Haspel, C., and M. Whitman. 1981.
Redesign suggestions for traps used to catch cats or other small mammals. Carnivore Genet. Newsl., 4:183-184.

Heusmann, H. W., and R. G. Burrell. 1974.
Studies in urban wildlife-park mallards. Pages 77-86 in Noyes and Progulske, eds. A symposium on wildlife in an urbanizing environment. Cooperative Extension Service, Univ. Mass. Planning and Resource Development Series 28, Holdsworth Natural Resources Center. 128 pp.

Holdgate, M. W. 1966.
The influence of introduced species on the ecosystems of temperate oceanic islands. Pages 151-176 in Towards a New Relationship of Man and Nature in Temperate Lands, Proc. Tech. Mtg., IUCN 10th, Lucerne. IUCN Publ., N. S., 9.

Howard, W. E. 1957.
Amount of food eaten by small carnivores. J. Mammal., 38(4):516-517.

Howell, P. G. 1984.
An evaluation of the biological control of the feral cat (Felis catus). Acta Zool. Fennica, 172:111-113.

Hubbs, E. L. 1950.
Food habits of feral house cats in the Sacramento Valley. M.A. thesis, Zoology. Univ. Calif., Berkeley, CA. 16 pp.

Hubbs, E. L. 1951.
Food habits of feral house cats in the Sacramento Valley. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 37(2):177-189.

Hunter, S. 1990.
The impact of introduced cats on the predator-prey interactions of a sub-Antarctic avian community. Pages 365-371 in Kerry, K. R., and G. Hempel, eds. Antarctic Ecosystems. Ecological Change and Conservation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Imber, M. J. 1973.
The petrels of Little Barrier. New Zealand Wildl. Serv., Wildlife -- A Review, 4:4-9.

Imber, M. J. 1987.
Breeding ecology and conservation of the black petrel Procellaria parkinsoni. Notornis, 34:19-39.

Iverson, J. B. 1978.
The impact of feral cats and dogs on populations of the West Indian rock iguana, Cyclura carinata. Biol. Conserv., 14:63-73.

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