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Following is a list of some of the scientific literature regarding marine protected areas. This list, though comprehensive, is not exhaustive. For each article, a link to its abstract is provided. The literature is arranged into several broad subject areas and alphabetically by author within those areas. The subject areas are:
- MPA Design
- MPA Effectiveness - Inside and Adjacent to MPAs
- MPA Effectiveness and Fisheries Management
- Social and Economic Analysis
- Larval Production and Transport
- MPA Modeling
- Human Impacts on the Marine Environment
This list was last updated in June 2010.
Airame, S., J.E. Dugan, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D.A. McArdle, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Applying Ecological Criteria to Marine Reserve Design: A Case Study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S170-S184.
Agardy, T., P. Bridgewater, M.P. Crosby, J. Day, P.K. Dayton, R. Kenchington, D. Laffoley, P. McConney, P.A. Murray, J.E. Parks, and L. Peau. 2003. Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 13(4): 353-367
Agardy, T. (2000). Information needs for marine protected areas: scientific and societal. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 875-888
Allison, G.W., S.D. Gaines, J. Lubencho, and H.P. Possingham. 2003. Ensuring Persistence of Marine Reserves: Catastrophes Require Adopting an Insurance Factor. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S8-S24.
Allison, G. W., J. Lubchenco and M. H. Carr. 1998. Marine Reserves are Necessary but not Sufficient for Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications. 8:S79-S92.
Ban, N. C. 2009. Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodiversity and Conservation. 18:1829-1845.
Banks, S. A. and G. A. Skilleter. 2010. Implementing marine reserve networks: A comparison of approaches in New South Wales (Australia) and New Zealand Marine Policy. 34:197-207.
Baskett, M. L., F. Micheli and S. A. Levin. 2007. Designing marine reserves for interacting species: Insights from theory. Biological Conservation. 137:163-179.
Blamey, L. K. and G. Branch. 2009. Habitat diversity relative to wave action on rocky shores: implications for the selection of marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19:645-657.
Botsford, L.W., F. Micheli, and A. Hastings. 2003. Principles for the Design of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S25-S31
Carr, M.H., J.E. Neigel, J.A. Estes, S. Andelman, R.R. Warner, and J.L. Largier. 2003. Comparing Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems: Implications for the Design of Coastal Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S90-S107.
Carson, H. S. and B. T. Hentschel. 2006. Estimating the dispersal potential of polychaete species in the Southern California Bight: implications for designing marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 316:105-113.
Claudet, J., C. W. Osenberg, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, P. Domenici, J. A. Garcia-Charton, A. Perez-Ruzafa, F. Badalamenti, J. Bayle-Sempere, A. Brito, F. Bulleri, J. M. Culioli, M. Dimech, J. M. Falcon, I. Guala, M. Milazzo, J. Sanchez-Meca, P. J. Somerfield, B. Stobart, F. Vandeperre, C. Valle and S. Planes. 2008. Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecology Letters. 11:481-489.
Costello, C., A. Rassweiler, D. Siegel, G. De Leo, F. Micheli, A. Rosenberg. (2010).The value of spatial information in MPA network design. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Craig, M. T., F. J. Fodrie, P. A. Hastings. (2004). The Nearshore Fish Assemblage of the Scripps Coastal Reserve, San Diego, California. Coastal Management 32: 341-351.
Denny, C. M. and R. C. Babcock. 2004. Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages? Biological Conservation. 116:119-129.
Edgar, G. J., N. S. Barrett and R. D. Stuart-Smith. 2009. Exploited reefs protected from fishing transform over decades into conservation features otherwise absent from seascapes. Ecological Applications. 19:1967-1974.
Fernandez, M. and J. C. Castilla. 2005. Marine conservation in Chile: historical perspective, lessons, and challenges. Conservation Biology. 19.
Forcada, A., C. Valle, P. Bonhomme, G. Criquet, G. Cadiou, P. Lenfant and J. L. Sanchez-Lizaso. 2009. Effects of habitat on spillover from marine protected areas to artisanal fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 379:197-211.
Fraschetti, S., A. Terlizzi, F. Micheli, L. Benedetti-Cecchi and F. Boero. 2002. Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea: Objectives, effectiveness and monitoring. Marine Ecology. 23:190-200.
Fraschetti, S., P. D'Ambrosio, F. Micheli, F. Pizzolante, S. Bussotti and A. Terlizzi. 2009. Design of marine protected areas in a human-dominated seascape. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 375:13-24.
Freeman, D., A. B. MacDiarmid and R. B. Taylor. 2009. Habitat patches that cross marine reserve boundaries: consequences for the lobster Jasus edwardsii. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 388:159-167.
Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier. 2003. Avoiding Current Oversights in Marine Reserve Design. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S32-S46.
Gleason, M., S. McCreary, M. Gleason, S. McCreary, M. Miller-Henson, J. Ugoretz, E. Fox, M. Merrifield, W. McClintock, P. Serpa, K. Hoffman. (2010). Science-based and stakeholder-driven marine protected area network planning: A successful case study from north central California. Ocean & Coastal Management: 1-17.
Grober-Dunsmore, R., L. Wooninck, J. Field, C. Ainsworth, J. P. Beets, S. Berkeley, J. A. Bohnsack, R. Boulon, R. D. Brodeur, J. Brodziak, L. Crowder, D. F. Gleason, M. A. Hixon, L. Kaufman, W. L. Lindberg, M. L. Miller, L. Morgan and C. Wahle. 2008. Vertical Zoning in Marine Protected Areas: Ecological Considerations For Balancing Pelagic Fishing With Conservation of Benthic Communities. Fisheries. 33:598-610.
Guidetti, P. 2002. The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12: 619-634.
Halpern, B. S., S. E. Lester, and K. L. McLeod. (2010). Placing marine protected areas onto the ecosystem based management seascape. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Halpern, B. S., K. L. McLeod, A. A. Rosenberg and L. B. Crowder. 2008. Managing for cumulative impacts in ecosystem-based management through ocean zoning. Ocean and Coastal Management. 51:203-211.
Halpern, B. S., H. M. Regan, H. P. Possingham and M. A. McCarthy. 2006. Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design. Ecology Letters. 9:2-11.
Halpern, B. S. and R. R. Warner. 2003. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 270:1871-1878.
Hamilton, S. L., J. E. Caselle, D. P. Malone, M. H. Carr. (2010). Incorporating biogeography into evaluations of the Channel Islands marine reserve network. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Haren, A. M. 2007. Reducing noise pollution from commercial shipping in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: A case study in marine protected area management of underwater noise. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy. 10:153-173.
Hastings, A. and L. W. Botsford. (2006). Persistence of spatial populations depends on returning home. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Hastings, A. and L.W. Botsford. 2003. Comparing Designs of Marine Reserves for Fisheries and for Biodiversity. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S65-S70.
Hofmann, G. E. and S. D. Gaines. (2008). New Tools to Meet New Challenges: Emerging Technologies for Managing Marine Ecosystems for Resilience. BioScience 58(1): 43-52.
Jones, P. J. 2002. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 11:197-216.
Karpov, K.A., M.J. Tegner, L. Rogers-Bennett, P.E. Kalvass, I.K. Taniguchi. 2001. Interactions Among Red Abalones and Sea Urchins in Fished and Reserve Sites of Northern California: Implications of Competition to Management. Journal of Shellfish Research. 20(2):743-53.
Klein, C. J., A. Chan, L. Kircher, A. J. Cundiff, N. Gardner, Y. Hrovat, A. Scholz, B. E. Kendall and S. Airame. In Press. Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology.
Koenig, C.C. F.C. Coleman, C.B. Grimes, G.R. Fitzhugh, K.M. Scanlon, C.T. Gledhill, M. Grace. 2000. Protection of fish spawning habitat for the conservation of warm-temperate reef-fish fisheries of shelf-edge reefs of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 593-616.
Kritzer, J. P. 2004. Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conservation Biology. 18:1021-1031.
Leathwick, J., A. Moilanen, M. Francis, J. Elith, P. Taylor, K. Julian, T. Hastie and C. Duffy. 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters. In Press.
Leslie, H., M. Ruckelshaus, I.R. Ball, S. Andelman, and H.P. Possingham. 2003. Using Siting Algorithms in the Design of Marine Reserve Networks. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S185-S198.
Lester, S. E., K. L. McLeod, H. Tallis, M. Ruckelshaus, B. S. Halpern, P. S. Levin, F. P. Chavez, C. Pomeroy, B. J. McCay, C. Costello, S. D. Gaines, A. J. Mace, J. A. Barth, D. L. Fluharty, J. K. Parrish. (2010). Science in support of ecosystem-based management for the US West Coast and beyond. Biological Conservation: 1-12.
Levin, S. A. and J. Lubchenco. (2008). Resilience, Robustness, and Marine Ecosystem-based Management. BioScience 58(1): 27-32.
Micheli, F., P. Amarasekare, J. Bascompte and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Including species interations in the design and evaluations of marine reserves: some insights from a predator-prey model. Bulletin of Marine Science. 74:653-669.
Monaco, M. E., A. M. Friedlander, C. Caldow, J.D. Christensen. (2007). Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: a lesson in marine protected area design. Fisheries Management and Ecology 14: 33-40.
Murray, S.N., R.F. Ambrose, J.A. Bohnsack, L.W. Botsford, M.H. Carr, G.E. Davis, P.K. Dayton, D. Gotshall, D.R. Gunderson, M.A. Hixon, J. Lubchenco, M. Mangel, A. MacCall, D.A. McArdle, J.C. Ogden, J. Roughgarden, R.M. Starr, M.J. Tegner, M.M. Yoklavich 1999. No-take reserve networks: sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems. Fisheries 24(11):11-25.
Neigel, J.E. 2003. Species-Area Relationships and Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S138-S145.
Osmond, M., S. Airame, M. Caldwell, J. Day. (2010). Lessons for marine conservation planning: A comparison of three marine protected area planning processes. Ocean & Coastal Management: 1-11.
Palumbi, S. R., K. L. McLeod, D. Grunbaum. (2008). Ecosystems in Action: Lessons from Marine Ecology about Recovery, Resistance, and Reversibility. BioScience 58(1): 33-42.
Palumbi, S. R., S. D. Gaines, H. Leslie, R. Warner. (2003). New Wave: High-Tech Tools to Help Marine Reserve Research. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(2): 73-79.
Palumbi, S.R. 2003. Population Genetics, Demographic Connectivity, and the Design of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S146-S158.
Parnell, P. E., P. K. Dayton, C. E. Lennert-Cody, L. L. Rasmussen and J. J. Leichter. 2006. Marine reserve design: optimal size, habitats, species affinities, diversity, and ocean microclimate. Ecological Applications. 16:945-962.
Peterson, M. N., M. J. Peterson and T. R. Peterson. 2005. Conservation and the myth of consensus. Conservation Biology. 19:762-767.
Roberts, C.M., G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Castilla, J. Dugan, B.S. Halpern, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. McArdle, M. Ruckelshaus, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Application of Ecological Criteria in Selecting Marine Reserves and Developing Reserve Networks. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S215-S228.
Roberts, C.M., S. Andelman, G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Castilla, J. Dugan, B.S. Halpern, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. McArdle, H.P. Possingham, M. Ruckelshaus, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Ecological Criteria for Evaluating Candidate Sites for Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S199-S214.
Rodwell, L.D., E.B. Barbier, C.M. Roberts, and T.R. McClanahan. 2003. The importance of habitat quality for marine reserve - fishery linkages. Canadian Journal Fisheries Aquatic Science 60: 171-181.
Ruckelshaus, M., T. Klinger, N. Knowlton, D. P. DeMaster. (2008). Marine Ecosystem-based Management in Practice: Scientific and Governance Challenges. BioScience 58(1): 53-63.
Sala, E., O. Aburto-Oropeza, G. Paredes, I. Parra, J.C. Barrera, and P.K. Dayton. 2002. A General Model for Designing Networks of Marine Reserves. Science 298: 1999-1993.
Sladek Nowlis, J., C.M. Roberts. 1999. Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves. Fishery Bulletin 97: 604-616.
Stefansson, G. and A. A. Rosenberg. 2006. Designing marine protected areas for migrating fish stocks. Journal of Fish Biology. 69:66-78.
Stoms, D. M., F. W. Davis, S. J. Andelman, M. H. Carr, S. D. Gaines, B. S. Halpern, R. Hoenicke, S. G. Leibowitz, A. Leydecker, E. Madin, H. Tallis and R. R. Warner. 2005. Integrated coastal reserve planning: making the land-sea connection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 3:429-436.
Sumaila, U. R., S. Guenette, J. Alder and R. Chuenpagdee. 2000. Addressing ecosystem effects of fishing using marine protected areas. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 57:752-760.
Taggart, S. J., J. Mondragon, A. Andrews, J. K. Nielsen. (2008). Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: implications for the design of marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 365: 151-163.
Weible, C. M. (2008). Caught in a Maelstrom: Implementing California Marine Protected Areas. Coastal Management 36(4): 350-373.
Angulo-Valdes, J. A. and B. G. Hatcher. (2009). A new typology of benefits derived from marine protected areas. Marine Policy.
Babcock, R. C., S. Kelly, N. T. Shears, J. W. Walker and T. J. Willis. 1999. Changes in community structure in temperate marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 189:125-134.
Barrett, N. S., G. J. Edgar, C. D. Buxton and M. Haddon. 2007. Changes in fish assemblages following 10 years of protection in Tasmanian marine protected areas. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 345:141-157.
Barrett, N. S., C. D. Buxton and G. J. Edgar. 2009. Changes in invertebrate and macroalgal populations in Tasmanian marine reserves in the decade following protection. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 370:10-119.
Bell, J. 1983. Effects of depth and marine reserve fishing restrictions on the structure of a rocky reef fish assemblage in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 20:357-369.
Bennett, B. A. and C. G. Attwood. 1991. Evidence for recovery of a surf-zone fish assemblage following the establishment of a marine reserve on the southern coast of South Africa. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 75:173-181.
Blyth-Skyrme, R. E., P. J. Hart, M. J. Kaiser, G. Edwards-Jones and D. Palmer. 2007. Evidence for greater reproductive output per unit area in areas protected from fishing. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 64:1284-1289.
Blyth-Skyrme, R. E., M. J. Kaiser, J. G. Hiddink, G. Edwards-Jones and P. J. B. Hart. 2006. Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species. Conservation Biology. 20:811-820.
Bonacci, S., A. Iacocca, S. Fossi, L. Lancini, T. Caruso, I. Corsi, S. Focardi. (2007). Biomonitoring Aquatic Environmental Quality in a Marine Protected Area: A Biomarker Approach. Ambio 36(4): 308-215.
Boudouresque, C. F. and M. Verlaque. (2005). Nature conservation, Marine Protected Areas, sustainable development and the flow of invasive species to the Mediterranean Sea. France, Port-Cros National Park: 29-54.
Byers, J. E. 2005. Marine reserves enhance abundance but not competitive impacts of a harvested nonindigenous species. Ecology. 86:487-500.
Cole, R. G., T. M. Ayling and R. G. Creese. 1990. Effects of marine reserve protection at Goat Island, northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 24:197-210.
Cote, I.M., I. Mosqueira, and J.D. Reynolds. 2001. Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis. Journal of Fish Biology 59(A): 178-189.
Diaz, D., M. Zabala, C. Linares, B. Hereu and P. Abello. 2005. Increased predation of juvenile European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a marine protected area. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 39:447-453.
Follesa, M. C., D. Cuccu, R. Cannas, S. Cabiddu, M. Murenu, A. Sabatini and A. Cau. 2008. Effects of marine reserve protection on spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas Fabr., 1787) in a central western Mediterranean area. Hydrobiologica. 606:63-68.
Frank, K.T., N.L. Shackell, and J.E. Simon. 2000. An evaluation of the Emerald/Western Bank juvenile haddock closed area. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 1023-1034.
Froeschke, J. T., L. G. Allen and D. J. Pondella II. 2006. The Fish Assemblages Inside and Outside of a Temperate Marine Reserve in Southern California. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences. 105:128-142.
Guidetti, P. and E. Sala. 2007. Community-wide effects of marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 335:43-56.
Halpern, B.S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S117-S137.
Halpern, B. S. and R. R. Warner. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecology Letters. 5:361-366.
Harmelin-Vivien, M., L. L. Diréach, J. Bayle-Sempere, E. Charbonnel, J. Antonio García-Chartone, D. Ody, A. Pérez-Ruzafae, O. Reñonesg, P. Sánchez-Jerez, C. Valle. (2008). Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?. Ecology Letters. 5:361-366.
Hsieh, C.-h., C. S. Reiss, R. P. Hewitt, G. Sugihara. (2008). Spatial analysis shows that fishing enhances the climatic sensitivity of marine fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science 65: 947-961.
Kelly, S. and A. B. MacDiarmid. 2003. Movement patterns of mature spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, from a marine reserve. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 37:149-158.
Lasiak, T. 2006. Spatial variation in density and biomass of patellid limpets inside and outside of a marine protected area. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 72:137-142.
Lester, S. E. and B. S. Halpern. 2008. Biological responses in marine no-take reserves versus partially protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 367:49-56.
Lester, S. E., B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines, S. Airame and R. R. Warner. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 384:33-46.
Lindholm, J., P. Auster and P. Valentine. 2004. Role of a large marine protected area for conserving landscape attributes of sand habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 260:61-68.
Lowe, C. G., D. T. Topping, D. P. Cartamil and Y. P. Papastamatiou. 2003. Movement patterns, home range, and habitat utilization of adult kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus in a temperate no-take marine reserve. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 256:205-216.
Martell, S.J.D., C.J. Walters, S.S. Wallace. 2000. The use of marine protected areas for conservation of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus). Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 729-743.
McClanahan, T. R. and M. S. 2000. Spillover of expolitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery. Ecological Applications. 10:1792-1805.
Meyer, C. G. 2007. The impacts of spear and other recreational fishers on a small permanent Marine Protected Area and adjacent pulse fished area. Fisheries Research. 84:301-307.
Micheli, F. and B. S. Halpern. 2005. Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages. Ecology Letters. 8:391-400.
Micheli, F., B. S. Halpern, L. W. Botsford and R. R. Warner. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. 2004. 14:1709-1723.
Molloy, P. P., I. B. McLean and I. M. Cote. 2009. Effects of marine reserve age on fish populations: a global meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology. 46:743-751.
Molloy, P. P., J. D. Reynolds, M. J. G. Gage, I. Mosqueira and I. M. Cote. 2008. Links between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas. Biological Conservation. 141:187-197.
Mosquera, I., I.M. Côté, S. Jennings, and J.D. Reynolds. 2000. Conservation benefits of marine reserves for fish populations. Animal Conservation 4: 321-332.
Paddack, M.J. and J.A. Estes 2000. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in Central California. Ecological Applications 10(3):855-870.
O'Farrell, M. R. and M. M. Yoklavich. (2009). Assessment of habitat and predator effects on dwarf rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) using multi model inference. Environ Biol Fish 85: 239-250.
Pande, A., A. B. MacDiarmid, P. J. Smith, R. J. Davidson, R. G. Cole, D. Freeman, S. Kelly and J. P. Gardner. 2008. Marine reserves increase the abundance and size of blue cod and rock lobster. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 366:147-158.
Parnell, E. P., C. E. Lennert-Cody, L. Geelen, L. D. Stanley and P. K. Dayton. 2005. Effectiveness of a small marine reserve in southern California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 296:39-52.
Pederson, H. G. and C. R. Johnson. 2006. Predation of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) in no-take marine reserves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 336:120-134.
Rioja-Nieto, R. and C. Sheppard. (2008). Effects of management strategies on the landscape ecology of a Marine Protected Area. Ocean & Coastal Management 51: 397-404.
Roberts, C. M., J. A. Bohnsack, F. Gell, J. P. Hawkins and R. Goodridge. 2001. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science. 294:1920-1923.
Rogers-Bennett, L., P. Haaker, K. Karpov. 2000. Selecting and Evaluating Marine Protected Areas for Abalone in California. Journal of Shellfish Research. 19(1):530-1.
Rogers-Bennett, L., Haaker, P.L., Karpov, K.A., Kushner, D.J. 2002. Using Spatially Explicit Data to Evaluate Marine Protected Areas for Abalone in Southern California. Conservation Biology 16(5): 1308-1317.
Russ, G. R. and A. C. Alcala. 1996. Marine reserves: rates and patterns of recovery and decline of large predatory fish. Ecological Applications. 6:947-961.
Salomon, A. K., J. L. Ruesink and R. E. DeWreede. 2006. Population viability, ecological processes and biodiversity: Valuing sites for reserve selection. Biological Conservation. 128:79-92.
Shears, N. T., R. V. Grace, N. R. Usmar, V. Kerr and R. C. Babcocka. 2006. Long-term trends in lobster populations in a partially protected vs. no-take marine park. Biological Conservation. 132:222-231.
Shears, N. T. and R. C. Babcock. 2003. Continuing trophic cascade effects after 25 years of no-take marine reserve protection. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 246:1-16.
Shears, N.T. and R.C. Babcock. 2002. Marine reserves demonstrate top-down control of community structure on temperate reefs. Oecologia 132:131-142.
Starr, R.M, M.H. Carr, J. Caselle, J.A. Estes, C. Syms, D.A. VenTresca, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2004. A review of the ecological effectiveness of subtidal marine reserves in central California, Part I: Synopsis of Scientific Investigations. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-04-02. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD. 128 pp.
Starr, R.M, M.H. Carr, J. Caselle, J.A. Estes, C. Syms, D.A. VenTresca, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2004. A review of the ecological effectiveness of subtidal marine reserves in central California, Part II: Summary of existing marine reserves in central California and their potential benefits. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-04-03. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD. 13 pp.
Stewart, G. B., I. M. Côté, M. J. Kaiser, B. S. Halpern, S. E. Lester, H. R. Bayliss, K. Mengersen, A. S. Pullin. (2008). Are marine protected areas effective tools for sustainable fisheries management? I. Biodiversity impact of marine reserves in temperate zones.. Systematic Review, Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation: 1-33.
Stobart, B., R. Warwick, C. Gonzalez, S. Mallol, D. Diaz, O. Renones and R. Goni. 2009. Long-term and spillover effects of a marine protected area on an exploited fish community. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 384:47-60.
Tetreault, I. and R. F. Ambrose. 2007. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take reserves. Ecological Applications. 17:2251-2267.
Topping, D. T., C. G. Lowe and J. E. Caselle. 2006. Site fidelity and seasonal movement patterns of adult California sheephead Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae): an acoustic monitoring study. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 326:257-267.
Topping, D. T., C. G. Lowe and J. E. Caselle. 2005. Home range and habitat utilization of adult California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae), in a temperate no-take marine reserve. Marine Biology. 147:301-311.
Tupper, M. 2007. Spillover of commercially valuable reef fishes from marine protected areas in Guam, Micronesia. Fishery Bulletin. 105:527-537.
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