- Ocean Fishing
- Laws & Regulations
- Marine Protected Areas
- Fish Identification
- Permits & Licenses
- FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions
- Marine Life Management & Research
- What We Do
Main Office: 20 Lower Ragsdale Drive, Suite 100
Monterey, CA 93940
Information: (831) 649-2870, AskMarine@wildlife.ca.gov
Acting Regional Manager:
Following is a list of some of the scientific literature regarding marine protected areas. This list, though comprehensive, is not exhaustive. For each article, a link to its abstract is provided. The literature is arranged into several broad subject areas and alphabetically by author within those areas. The subject areas are:
- MPA Design
- MPA Effectiveness - Inside and Adjacent to MPAs
- MPA Effectiveness and Fisheries Management
- Social and Economic Analysis
- Larval Production and Transport
- MPA Modeling
- Human Impacts on the Marine Environment
This list was last updated in June 2010.
Airame, S., J.E. Dugan, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D.A. McArdle, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Applying Ecological Criteria to Marine Reserve Design: A Case Study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S170-S184.
Agardy, T., P. Bridgewater, M.P. Crosby, J. Day, P.K. Dayton, R. Kenchington, D. Laffoley, P. McConney, P.A. Murray, J.E. Parks, and L. Peau. 2003. Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 13(4): 353-367
Agardy, T. (2000). Information needs for marine protected areas: scientific and societal. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 875-888
Allison, G.W., S.D. Gaines, J. Lubencho, and H.P. Possingham. 2003. Ensuring Persistence of Marine Reserves: Catastrophes Require Adopting an Insurance Factor. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S8-S24.
Allison, G. W., J. Lubchenco and M. H. Carr. 1998. Marine Reserves are Necessary but not Sufficient for Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications. 8:S79-S92.
Ban, N. C. 2009. Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodiversity and Conservation. 18:1829-1845.
Banks, S. A. and G. A. Skilleter. 2010. Implementing marine reserve networks: A comparison of approaches in New South Wales (Australia) and New Zealand Marine Policy. 34:197-207.
Baskett, M. L., F. Micheli and S. A. Levin. 2007. Designing marine reserves for interacting species: Insights from theory. Biological Conservation. 137:163-179.
Blamey, L. K. and G. Branch. 2009. Habitat diversity relative to wave action on rocky shores: implications for the selection of marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19:645-657.
Botsford, L.W., F. Micheli, and A. Hastings. 2003. Principles for the Design of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S25-S31
Carr, M.H., J.E. Neigel, J.A. Estes, S. Andelman, R.R. Warner, and J.L. Largier. 2003. Comparing Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems: Implications for the Design of Coastal Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S90-S107.
Carson, H. S. and B. T. Hentschel. 2006. Estimating the dispersal potential of polychaete species in the Southern California Bight: implications for designing marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 316:105-113.
Claudet, J., C. W. Osenberg, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, P. Domenici, J. A. Garcia-Charton, A. Perez-Ruzafa, F. Badalamenti, J. Bayle-Sempere, A. Brito, F. Bulleri, J. M. Culioli, M. Dimech, J. M. Falcon, I. Guala, M. Milazzo, J. Sanchez-Meca, P. J. Somerfield, B. Stobart, F. Vandeperre, C. Valle and S. Planes. 2008. Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecology Letters. 11:481-489.
Costello, C., A. Rassweiler, D. Siegel, G. De Leo, F. Micheli, A. Rosenberg. (2010).The value of spatial information in MPA network design. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Craig, M. T., F. J. Fodrie, P. A. Hastings. (2004). The Nearshore Fish Assemblage of the Scripps Coastal Reserve, San Diego, California. Coastal Management 32: 341-351.
Denny, C. M. and R. C. Babcock. 2004. Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages? Biological Conservation. 116:119-129.
Edgar, G. J., N. S. Barrett and R. D. Stuart-Smith. 2009. Exploited reefs protected from fishing transform over decades into conservation features otherwise absent from seascapes. Ecological Applications. 19:1967-1974.
Fernandez, M. and J. C. Castilla. 2005. Marine conservation in Chile: historical perspective, lessons, and challenges. Conservation Biology. 19.
Forcada, A., C. Valle, P. Bonhomme, G. Criquet, G. Cadiou, P. Lenfant and J. L. Sanchez-Lizaso. 2009. Effects of habitat on spillover from marine protected areas to artisanal fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 379:197-211.
Fraschetti, S., A. Terlizzi, F. Micheli, L. Benedetti-Cecchi and F. Boero. 2002. Marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea: Objectives, effectiveness and monitoring. Marine Ecology. 23:190-200.
Fraschetti, S., P. D'Ambrosio, F. Micheli, F. Pizzolante, S. Bussotti and A. Terlizzi. 2009. Design of marine protected areas in a human-dominated seascape. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 375:13-24.
Freeman, D., A. B. MacDiarmid and R. B. Taylor. 2009. Habitat patches that cross marine reserve boundaries: consequences for the lobster Jasus edwardsii. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 388:159-167.
Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier. 2003. Avoiding Current Oversights in Marine Reserve Design. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S32-S46.
Gleason, M., S. McCreary, M. Gleason, S. McCreary, M. Miller-Henson, J. Ugoretz, E. Fox, M. Merrifield, W. McClintock, P. Serpa, K. Hoffman. (2010). Science-based and stakeholder-driven marine protected area network planning: A successful case study from north central California. Ocean & Coastal Management: 1-17.
Grober-Dunsmore, R., L. Wooninck, J. Field, C. Ainsworth, J. P. Beets, S. Berkeley, J. A. Bohnsack, R. Boulon, R. D. Brodeur, J. Brodziak, L. Crowder, D. F. Gleason, M. A. Hixon, L. Kaufman, W. L. Lindberg, M. L. Miller, L. Morgan and C. Wahle. 2008. Vertical Zoning in Marine Protected Areas: Ecological Considerations For Balancing Pelagic Fishing With Conservation of Benthic Communities. Fisheries. 33:598-610.
Guidetti, P. 2002. The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12: 619-634.
Halpern, B. S., S. E. Lester, and K. L. McLeod. (2010). Placing marine protected areas onto the ecosystem based management seascape. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Halpern, B. S., K. L. McLeod, A. A. Rosenberg and L. B. Crowder. 2008. Managing for cumulative impacts in ecosystem-based management through ocean zoning. Ocean and Coastal Management. 51:203-211.
Halpern, B. S., H. M. Regan, H. P. Possingham and M. A. McCarthy. 2006. Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design. Ecology Letters. 9:2-11.
Halpern, B. S. and R. R. Warner. 2003. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 270:1871-1878.
Hamilton, S. L., J. E. Caselle, D. P. Malone, M. H. Carr. (2010). Incorporating biogeography into evaluations of the Channel Islands marine reserve network. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Haren, A. M. 2007. Reducing noise pollution from commercial shipping in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: A case study in marine protected area management of underwater noise. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy. 10:153-173.
Hastings, A. and L. W. Botsford. (2006). Persistence of spatial populations depends on returning home. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Hastings, A. and L.W. Botsford. 2003. Comparing Designs of Marine Reserves for Fisheries and for Biodiversity. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S65-S70.
Hofmann, G. E. and S. D. Gaines. (2008). New Tools to Meet New Challenges: Emerging Technologies for Managing Marine Ecosystems for Resilience. BioScience 58(1): 43-52.
Jones, P. J. 2002. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 11:197-216.
Karpov, K.A., M.J. Tegner, L. Rogers-Bennett, P.E. Kalvass, I.K. Taniguchi. 2001. Interactions Among Red Abalones and Sea Urchins in Fished and Reserve Sites of Northern California: Implications of Competition to Management. Journal of Shellfish Research. 20(2):743-53.
Klein, C. J., A. Chan, L. Kircher, A. J. Cundiff, N. Gardner, Y. Hrovat, A. Scholz, B. E. Kendall and S. Airame. In Press. Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology.
Koenig, C.C. F.C. Coleman, C.B. Grimes, G.R. Fitzhugh, K.M. Scanlon, C.T. Gledhill, M. Grace. 2000. Protection of fish spawning habitat for the conservation of warm-temperate reef-fish fisheries of shelf-edge reefs of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 593-616.
Kritzer, J. P. 2004. Effects of noncompliance on the success of alternative designs of marine protected area networks for conservation and fisheries management. Conservation Biology. 18:1021-1031.
Leathwick, J., A. Moilanen, M. Francis, J. Elith, P. Taylor, K. Julian, T. Hastie and C. Duffy. 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters. In Press.
Leslie, H., M. Ruckelshaus, I.R. Ball, S. Andelman, and H.P. Possingham. 2003. Using Siting Algorithms in the Design of Marine Reserve Networks. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S185-S198.
Lester, S. E., K. L. McLeod, H. Tallis, M. Ruckelshaus, B. S. Halpern, P. S. Levin, F. P. Chavez, C. Pomeroy, B. J. McCay, C. Costello, S. D. Gaines, A. J. Mace, J. A. Barth, D. L. Fluharty, J. K. Parrish. (2010). Science in support of ecosystem-based management for the US West Coast and beyond. Biological Conservation: 1-12.
Levin, S. A. and J. Lubchenco. (2008). Resilience, Robustness, and Marine Ecosystem-based Management. BioScience 58(1): 27-32.
Micheli, F., P. Amarasekare, J. Bascompte and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Including species interations in the design and evaluations of marine reserves: some insights from a predator-prey model. Bulletin of Marine Science. 74:653-669.
Monaco, M. E., A. M. Friedlander, C. Caldow, J.D. Christensen. (2007). Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: a lesson in marine protected area design. Fisheries Management and Ecology 14: 33-40.
Murray, S.N., R.F. Ambrose, J.A. Bohnsack, L.W. Botsford, M.H. Carr, G.E. Davis, P.K. Dayton, D. Gotshall, D.R. Gunderson, M.A. Hixon, J. Lubchenco, M. Mangel, A. MacCall, D.A. McArdle, J.C. Ogden, J. Roughgarden, R.M. Starr, M.J. Tegner, M.M. Yoklavich 1999. No-take reserve networks: sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems. Fisheries 24(11):11-25.
Neigel, J.E. 2003. Species-Area Relationships and Marine Conservation. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S138-S145.
Osmond, M., S. Airame, M. Caldwell, J. Day. (2010). Lessons for marine conservation planning: A comparison of three marine protected area planning processes. Ocean & Coastal Management: 1-11.
Palumbi, S. R., K. L. McLeod, D. Grunbaum. (2008). Ecosystems in Action: Lessons from Marine Ecology about Recovery, Resistance, and Reversibility. BioScience 58(1): 33-42.
Palumbi, S. R., S. D. Gaines, H. Leslie, R. Warner. (2003). New Wave: High-Tech Tools to Help Marine Reserve Research. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(2): 73-79.
Palumbi, S.R. 2003. Population Genetics, Demographic Connectivity, and the Design of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S146-S158.
Parnell, P. E., P. K. Dayton, C. E. Lennert-Cody, L. L. Rasmussen and J. J. Leichter. 2006. Marine reserve design: optimal size, habitats, species affinities, diversity, and ocean microclimate. Ecological Applications. 16:945-962.
Peterson, M. N., M. J. Peterson and T. R. Peterson. 2005. Conservation and the myth of consensus. Conservation Biology. 19:762-767.
Roberts, C.M., G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Castilla, J. Dugan, B.S. Halpern, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. McArdle, M. Ruckelshaus, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Application of Ecological Criteria in Selecting Marine Reserves and Developing Reserve Networks. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S215-S228.
Roberts, C.M., S. Andelman, G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Castilla, J. Dugan, B.S. Halpern, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D. McArdle, H.P. Possingham, M. Ruckelshaus, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Ecological Criteria for Evaluating Candidate Sites for Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S199-S214.
Rodwell, L.D., E.B. Barbier, C.M. Roberts, and T.R. McClanahan. 2003. The importance of habitat quality for marine reserve - fishery linkages. Canadian Journal Fisheries Aquatic Science 60: 171-181.
Ruckelshaus, M., T. Klinger, N. Knowlton, D. P. DeMaster. (2008). Marine Ecosystem-based Management in Practice: Scientific and Governance Challenges. BioScience 58(1): 53-63.
Sala, E., O. Aburto-Oropeza, G. Paredes, I. Parra, J.C. Barrera, and P.K. Dayton. 2002. A General Model for Designing Networks of Marine Reserves. Science 298: 1999-1993.
Sladek Nowlis, J., C.M. Roberts. 1999. Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves. Fishery Bulletin 97: 604-616.
Stefansson, G. and A. A. Rosenberg. 2006. Designing marine protected areas for migrating fish stocks. Journal of Fish Biology. 69:66-78.
Stoms, D. M., F. W. Davis, S. J. Andelman, M. H. Carr, S. D. Gaines, B. S. Halpern, R. Hoenicke, S. G. Leibowitz, A. Leydecker, E. Madin, H. Tallis and R. R. Warner. 2005. Integrated coastal reserve planning: making the land-sea connection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 3:429-436.
Sumaila, U. R., S. Guenette, J. Alder and R. Chuenpagdee. 2000. Addressing ecosystem effects of fishing using marine protected areas. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 57:752-760.
Taggart, S. J., J. Mondragon, A. Andrews, J. K. Nielsen. (2008). Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: implications for the design of marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 365: 151-163.
Weible, C. M. (2008). Caught in a Maelstrom: Implementing California Marine Protected Areas. Coastal Management 36(4): 350-373.
Angulo-Valdes, J. A. and B. G. Hatcher. (2009). A new typology of benefits derived from marine protected areas. Marine Policy.
Babcock, R. C., S. Kelly, N. T. Shears, J. W. Walker and T. J. Willis. 1999. Changes in community structure in temperate marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 189:125-134.
Barrett, N. S., G. J. Edgar, C. D. Buxton and M. Haddon. 2007. Changes in fish assemblages following 10 years of protection in Tasmanian marine protected areas. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 345:141-157.
Barrett, N. S., C. D. Buxton and G. J. Edgar. 2009. Changes in invertebrate and macroalgal populations in Tasmanian marine reserves in the decade following protection. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 370:10-119.
Bell, J. 1983. Effects of depth and marine reserve fishing restrictions on the structure of a rocky reef fish assemblage in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 20:357-369.
Bennett, B. A. and C. G. Attwood. 1991. Evidence for recovery of a surf-zone fish assemblage following the establishment of a marine reserve on the southern coast of South Africa. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 75:173-181.
Blyth-Skyrme, R. E., P. J. Hart, M. J. Kaiser, G. Edwards-Jones and D. Palmer. 2007. Evidence for greater reproductive output per unit area in areas protected from fishing. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 64:1284-1289.
Blyth-Skyrme, R. E., M. J. Kaiser, J. G. Hiddink, G. Edwards-Jones and P. J. B. Hart. 2006. Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species. Conservation Biology. 20:811-820.
Bonacci, S., A. Iacocca, S. Fossi, L. Lancini, T. Caruso, I. Corsi, S. Focardi. (2007). Biomonitoring Aquatic Environmental Quality in a Marine Protected Area: A Biomarker Approach. Ambio 36(4): 308-215.
Boudouresque, C. F. and M. Verlaque. (2005). Nature conservation, Marine Protected Areas, sustainable development and the flow of invasive species to the Mediterranean Sea. France, Port-Cros National Park: 29-54.
Byers, J. E. 2005. Marine reserves enhance abundance but not competitive impacts of a harvested nonindigenous species. Ecology. 86:487-500.
Cole, R. G., T. M. Ayling and R. G. Creese. 1990. Effects of marine reserve protection at Goat Island, northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 24:197-210.
Cote, I.M., I. Mosqueira, and J.D. Reynolds. 2001. Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis. Journal of Fish Biology 59(A): 178-189.
Diaz, D., M. Zabala, C. Linares, B. Hereu and P. Abello. 2005. Increased predation of juvenile European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a marine protected area. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 39:447-453.
Follesa, M. C., D. Cuccu, R. Cannas, S. Cabiddu, M. Murenu, A. Sabatini and A. Cau. 2008. Effects of marine reserve protection on spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas Fabr., 1787) in a central western Mediterranean area. Hydrobiologica. 606:63-68.
Frank, K.T., N.L. Shackell, and J.E. Simon. 2000. An evaluation of the Emerald/Western Bank juvenile haddock closed area. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 1023-1034.
Froeschke, J. T., L. G. Allen and D. J. Pondella II. 2006. The Fish Assemblages Inside and Outside of a Temperate Marine Reserve in Southern California. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences. 105:128-142.
Guidetti, P. and E. Sala. 2007. Community-wide effects of marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 335:43-56.
Halpern, B.S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S117-S137.
Halpern, B. S. and R. R. Warner. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecology Letters. 5:361-366.
Harmelin-Vivien, M., L. L. Diréach, J. Bayle-Sempere, E. Charbonnel, J. Antonio García-Chartone, D. Ody, A. Pérez-Ruzafae, O. Reñonesg, P. Sánchez-Jerez, C. Valle. (2008). Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?. Ecology Letters. 5:361-366.
Hsieh, C.-h., C. S. Reiss, R. P. Hewitt, G. Sugihara. (2008). Spatial analysis shows that fishing enhances the climatic sensitivity of marine fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science 65: 947-961.
Kelly, S. and A. B. MacDiarmid. 2003. Movement patterns of mature spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, from a marine reserve. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 37:149-158.
Lasiak, T. 2006. Spatial variation in density and biomass of patellid limpets inside and outside of a marine protected area. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 72:137-142.
Lester, S. E. and B. S. Halpern. 2008. Biological responses in marine no-take reserves versus partially protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 367:49-56.
Lester, S. E., B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines, S. Airame and R. R. Warner. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 384:33-46.
Lindholm, J., P. Auster and P. Valentine. 2004. Role of a large marine protected area for conserving landscape attributes of sand habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 260:61-68.
Lowe, C. G., D. T. Topping, D. P. Cartamil and Y. P. Papastamatiou. 2003. Movement patterns, home range, and habitat utilization of adult kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus in a temperate no-take marine reserve. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 256:205-216.
Martell, S.J.D., C.J. Walters, S.S. Wallace. 2000. The use of marine protected areas for conservation of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus). Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 729-743.
McClanahan, T. R. and M. S. 2000. Spillover of expolitable fishes from a marine park and its effect on the adjacent fishery. Ecological Applications. 10:1792-1805.
Meyer, C. G. 2007. The impacts of spear and other recreational fishers on a small permanent Marine Protected Area and adjacent pulse fished area. Fisheries Research. 84:301-307.
Micheli, F. and B. S. Halpern. 2005. Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages. Ecology Letters. 8:391-400.
Micheli, F., B. S. Halpern, L. W. Botsford and R. R. Warner. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. 2004. 14:1709-1723.
Molloy, P. P., I. B. McLean and I. M. Cote. 2009. Effects of marine reserve age on fish populations: a global meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology. 46:743-751.
Molloy, P. P., J. D. Reynolds, M. J. G. Gage, I. Mosqueira and I. M. Cote. 2008. Links between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas. Biological Conservation. 141:187-197.
Mosquera, I., I.M. Côté, S. Jennings, and J.D. Reynolds. 2000. Conservation benefits of marine reserves for fish populations. Animal Conservation 4: 321-332.
Paddack, M.J. and J.A. Estes 2000. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in Central California. Ecological Applications 10(3):855-870.
O'Farrell, M. R. and M. M. Yoklavich. (2009). Assessment of habitat and predator effects on dwarf rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) using multi model inference. Environ Biol Fish 85: 239-250.
Pande, A., A. B. MacDiarmid, P. J. Smith, R. J. Davidson, R. G. Cole, D. Freeman, S. Kelly and J. P. Gardner. 2008. Marine reserves increase the abundance and size of blue cod and rock lobster. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 366:147-158.
Parnell, E. P., C. E. Lennert-Cody, L. Geelen, L. D. Stanley and P. K. Dayton. 2005. Effectiveness of a small marine reserve in southern California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 296:39-52.
Pederson, H. G. and C. R. Johnson. 2006. Predation of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) in no-take marine reserves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 336:120-134.
Rioja-Nieto, R. and C. Sheppard. (2008). Effects of management strategies on the landscape ecology of a Marine Protected Area. Ocean & Coastal Management 51: 397-404.
Roberts, C. M., J. A. Bohnsack, F. Gell, J. P. Hawkins and R. Goodridge. 2001. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science. 294:1920-1923.
Rogers-Bennett, L., P. Haaker, K. Karpov. 2000. Selecting and Evaluating Marine Protected Areas for Abalone in California. Journal of Shellfish Research. 19(1):530-1.
Rogers-Bennett, L., Haaker, P.L., Karpov, K.A., Kushner, D.J. 2002. Using Spatially Explicit Data to Evaluate Marine Protected Areas for Abalone in Southern California. Conservation Biology 16(5): 1308-1317.
Russ, G. R. and A. C. Alcala. 1996. Marine reserves: rates and patterns of recovery and decline of large predatory fish. Ecological Applications. 6:947-961.
Salomon, A. K., J. L. Ruesink and R. E. DeWreede. 2006. Population viability, ecological processes and biodiversity: Valuing sites for reserve selection. Biological Conservation. 128:79-92.
Shears, N. T., R. V. Grace, N. R. Usmar, V. Kerr and R. C. Babcocka. 2006. Long-term trends in lobster populations in a partially protected vs. no-take marine park. Biological Conservation. 132:222-231.
Shears, N. T. and R. C. Babcock. 2003. Continuing trophic cascade effects after 25 years of no-take marine reserve protection. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 246:1-16.
Shears, N.T. and R.C. Babcock. 2002. Marine reserves demonstrate top-down control of community structure on temperate reefs. Oecologia 132:131-142.
Starr, R.M, M.H. Carr, J. Caselle, J.A. Estes, C. Syms, D.A. VenTresca, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2004. A review of the ecological effectiveness of subtidal marine reserves in central California, Part I: Synopsis of Scientific Investigations. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-04-02. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD. 128 pp.
Starr, R.M, M.H. Carr, J. Caselle, J.A. Estes, C. Syms, D.A. VenTresca, and M. M. Yoklavich. 2004. A review of the ecological effectiveness of subtidal marine reserves in central California, Part II: Summary of existing marine reserves in central California and their potential benefits. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series MSD-04-03. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Sanctuaries Division, Silver Spring, MD. 13 pp.
Stewart, G. B., I. M. Côté, M. J. Kaiser, B. S. Halpern, S. E. Lester, H. R. Bayliss, K. Mengersen, A. S. Pullin. (2008). Are marine protected areas effective tools for sustainable fisheries management? I. Biodiversity impact of marine reserves in temperate zones.. Systematic Review, Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation: 1-33.
Stobart, B., R. Warwick, C. Gonzalez, S. Mallol, D. Diaz, O. Renones and R. Goni. 2009. Long-term and spillover effects of a marine protected area on an exploited fish community. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 384:47-60.
Tetreault, I. and R. F. Ambrose. 2007. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take reserves. Ecological Applications. 17:2251-2267.
Topping, D. T., C. G. Lowe and J. E. Caselle. 2006. Site fidelity and seasonal movement patterns of adult California sheephead Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae): an acoustic monitoring study. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 326:257-267.
Topping, D. T., C. G. Lowe and J. E. Caselle. 2005. Home range and habitat utilization of adult California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae), in a temperate no-take marine reserve. Marine Biology. 147:301-311.
Tupper, M. 2007. Spillover of commercially valuable reef fishes from marine protected areas in Guam, Micronesia. Fishery Bulletin. 105:527-537.
Tuya, F.C., M.L. Soboil, and J. Kido. 2000. An assessment of the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 1218-1226.
Willis, T.J., R.B. Millar, R.C. Babcock, and N. Tolimieri. 2003. Comment - Burdens of evidence and the benefits of marine reserves: putting Descartes before des horse? Environmental Conservation 30(2): 97-103.
Vizzini, S. and A. Mazzola. (2009). Stable isotopes and trophic positions of littoral fishes from a Mediterranean marine protected area. Environ Biol Fish 84: 13-25.
Wallace, S. S. 1999. Evaluating effects of three forms of marine reserve on northern abalone populations in British Columbia, Canada. Conservation Biology. 13:882-887.
Wendt, D. E. and R. Starr. (2009). Collaborative Research: An Effective Way to Collect Data for Stock Assessments and Evaluate Marine Protected Areas in California. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 1: 315-324.
Willis, T. J., R. B. Millar and R. C. Babcock. 2003. Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves. Journal of Applied Ecology. 40:214-227.
Yoklavich, M. M., H. G. Greene, G. M. Cailliet, D. E. Sullivan, R. N. Lea and M. S. Love. 2000. Habitat associations of deep-water rockfishes in a submarine canyon: an example of a natural refuge. Fishery Bulletin. 98:625-641.
Yorio, P. (2009). Marine protected areas, spatial scales, and governance: implications for the conservation of breeding seabirds. Conservation Letters XX: 1-8.
Anderson, C. N. K., C.-h. Hsieh, S. A. Sandin, R. Hewitt, A. Hollowed, J. Beddington, R. M. May, G. Sugihara. (2008). Why fishing magnifies fluctuations in fish abundance. Nature 452: 835-839.
Apostolaki, P., E.J. Milner-Gulland, M.K. McAllister, and G.P. Kirkwood. 2002. Modelling the effects of establishing a marine reserve for mobile fish species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 405-415.
Babcock, R. C., E. K. Pikitch, M. K. McAllister, P. Apostolaki and C. Santora. 2005. A perspective on the use of spatialized indicators for ecosystem-based fishery management through spatial zoning. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 62:469-476.
Babcock, R. C., N. T. Shears, A. C. Alcala, N. S. Barrett, G. J. Edgar, K. D. Lafferty, T. R. McClanahan, and G. R. Russ. (2010). Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Bellquist, L. F., C. G. Lowe and J. E. Caselle. 2008. Fine-scale movement patterns, site fidelity, and habitat selection of ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps). Fisheries Research. 91:325-335.
Bohnsack, J.A.. 2000. A comparison of the short-term impacts of no-take marine reserves and minimum size limits. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 635-650.
Collins, M.R., T.I.J. Smith, W.E. Jenkins, M.R. Denson. 2002. Small Marine Reserves May Increase Escapement of Red Drum. Fisheries 27(2): 20-24.
Cooke, S. J., A. J. Danylchuck, S. E. Danylchuck, C. D. Suski and T. L. Goldberg. 2006. Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas? Ocean and Coastal Management. 49:342-354.
Dayton, P.K., E. Sala, M.J. Tegner and S. Thrush. 2000. Marine reserves: Parks, baselines, and fishery enhancement. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3): 617-634.
Fanshawe, S., G. R. Vanblaricom and A. A. Shelly. 2003. Restored top carnivores as detriments to the performance of marine protected areas intended for fishery sustainability: a case study with red abalones and sea otters. Conservation Biology. 17:273-283.
Field, J. C., A. E. Punt, R. D. Methot and C. J. Thomson. 2006. Does MPA mean 'Major Problem for Assessments'? Considering the consequences of place-based management systems. Fish and Fisheries. 7:284-302.
Follesa, M., D. Cuccu, R. Cannas, A. Sabatini and A. Cau. 2007. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area. Scientia Marina. 71:279-285.
Francis, R. C., M. A. Hixon, M. E. Clarke, S. A. Murawski and S. Ralston. 2007. Ten commandments for ecosystem-based fisheries scientists. Fisheries. 32:217-233.
Gardmark, A., N. Jonzen and M. Mangel. 2006. Density-dependent body growth reduces the potential of marine reserves to enhance yields. Journal of Applied Ecology. 43:61-69.
Goni, R., A. Quetglas and O. Renones. 2006. Spillover of spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas from a marine reserve to an adjoining fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 308:207-210.
Hastings, A. and L. W. Botsford. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity. Ecological Applications. 13:S65-S70.
Hastings, A. and L.W. Botsford. 1999. Equivalence in Yield from Marine Reserves and Traditional Fisheries Management. Science 284: 1537-1538.
Hilborn, R. K. Stokesb, J. Maguirec, T. Smith, L.W. Botsford, M. Mangel, J. Orensanz, A. Parma, J. Rice, J. Bell, K.L. Cochrane, S. Garcia, S.J. Hall, G.P. Kirkwood, K. Sainsbury, G. Stefansson, C. Walters. 2004. When can marine reserves improve fisheries management? Ocean and Coastal Management. In Press.
Lubchenco, J., S. Palumbi, S. D. Gaines and S. Andelman. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves. Ecological Applications. 13:S3-S7.
Morgan, L. E., L.W. Botsford, C.J. Lundquist, J.F. Quinn. 1999. The potential of no-take reserves to sustain the red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) fishery in northern California. Bulletin of Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, Special Issue 62: 83-94.
Murawski, S.A., R. Brown, H-L Lai, P.J. Rago, L. Hendrickson. 2000. Large-scale closed areas as a fishery-management tool in temperate marine systems: The Georges Bank experience. Bulletin of Marine Science 66(3).
National Fisheries Conservation Center (NFCC). Integrating Marine Reserve Science and Fisheries Management. 2004. NFCC Consensus Statement, June 7-9, 2004, Long Beach, California. http://nfcc-fisheries.org/images/uploads/Consensus_Statement.pdf.
Nowlis, J. S. and C. M. Roberts. 1999. Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves. Fishery Bulletin. 97:
Pastoors, M.A., A.D. Rijnsdorp, and F.A. Van Beek. 2000. Effects of a partially closed area in the North Sea (''plaice box'') on stock development of plaice. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 1014-1022.
Quesne, W. J., S. J. Hawkins and J. G. Shepherd. 2007. A comparison of no-take zones and traditional fishery management tools for managing site-attached species with a mixed larval pool. Fish and Fisheries. 8:181-195.
Roberts, C.M., J.A. Bohnsack, F. Gell, J.P. Hawkins and R. Goodridge. 2001. Effects of Marine Reserves on Adjacent Fisheries. Science 294:1920-1923.
Rogers-Bennett, L. 1998. Marine Protected Areas and the Red Urchin Fishery. In Taking a Look at California's Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future. 1998. Magoon, O.R., H. Converse, B. Baird, M. Miller-Henson, editors. Reston, VA (USA): Vol. 1, pp. 412-423.
Rogers-Bennett, L. and J.S. Pearse. 2001. Indirect Benefits of Marine Protected Areas for Juvenile Abalone. Conservation Biolology. 15(3):642-7.
Russ, G. R., A. C. Alcala, A. P. Maypa, H. P. Calumpong and A. T. White. 2004. Marine reserves benefits local fisheries. Ecological Applications. 14:597-606.
Sanchirico, J.N., and J.E. Wilen. 2002. The Impacts of Marine Reserves on Limited-Entry Fisheries. Natural Resources Modeling 15: 291-310.
Schroeder, D. M. and M. S. Love. 2002. Recreational fishing and marine fish populations in California. CalCOFI Report. 43:182-190.
Schroeter, S.C, D. C. Reed, D. J. Kushner, J. A. Estes, and D. S. Ono. 2001. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber (Parastichopus parvimensis) in California, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 1773-1781.
Shipp, R.L. 2000. No Take Marine Protected Areas (nMPAs) as a fishery management tool, a pragmatic perspective. A report to the FishAmerica foundation. 8 pp.
Shipp, R.L. 2003. A Perspective on Marine Reserves as a Fishery Management Tool. Fisheries 28: 10-21.
Smith, M. D., J. Zhang and F. C. C. Coleman. 2006. Effectiveness of marine reserves for large-scale fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63:153-164.
Soh, S.K., Dr.R. Gunderson, D.H. Ito. 2001. The potential role of marine reserves in the management of shortraker rockfish (Sebastes borealis) and rougheye rockfish (S. Aleutianus) in the Gulf of Alaska. Fishery Bulletin 99(1): 168-179.
Stelzenmuller, V., F. Maynou, G. Bernard, G. Cadiou, M. Camilleri, R. Crec'hriou, G. Criquet, M. Dimech, O. Esparaza, R. Higgins, P. Lenfant and A. Perez-Ruzafa. 2008. Spatial assessment of fishing effort around European marine reserves: Implications for successful fisheries management. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 56:2018-2026.
Stelzenmuller, V., F. Maynou and P. Martin. 2009. Patterns of species and functional diversity around a coastal marine reserve: a fisheries perspective. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19:554-565.
VenTresca, D.A. M.L. Gingras, J. Ugoretz, A. Voss, S. Blair, J. Plant, R. Hornady, C. Yoshiyama. 1997. The potential of marine reserves to enhance fisheries. Taking a Look at California's Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future, ASCE, Reston, VA (USA), vol.1: 400-411.
Browman, H. I. and K. I. Stergiou. 2005. Politics and socio-economics of ecosystem-based management of marine resources. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 300:241-296.
Compas, E., B. Clarke, C. Cutler and K. Daish. 2007. Murky waters: Media reporting of marine protected areas in South Australia. Marine Policy. 31:691-697.
Dalton, T. M. 2005. Beyond biogeography: a framework for involving the public in planning of U.S. marine protected areas. Conservation Biology. 19:1392-1401.
Dalton, M.T. 2004. An approach for integrating economic impact analysis into the evaluation of potential marine protected area sites. Journal of Environmental Management 70(3): 333-349.
Grafton, R. Q., T. Kompas and V. Schneider. 2005. The bioeconomics of marine reserves: A selected review with policy implications. Journal of Bioeconomics. 7:161-178.
Hart, D. R. and M. P. Sissenwine. 2009. Marine reserve effects on fishery profits: a comment on White et al. (2008). Ecology Letters. 12:E9-E11.
Helvey, M. 2004. Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged. Coastal Management 32: 173-190.
Klein, C. J., C. Steinback, A. J. Scholz, and H. P. Possingham. (2008). Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California. Conservation Letters 1: 44-51.
Klein, C. J., A. Chan, L. Kircher, A. J. Cundiff, N. Gardner, Y. Hrovat, A. Scholz, B. E. Kendall and S. Airame. 2008. Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology. 22:691-700.
Leathwick, J., A. Moilanen, M. Francis, J. Elith, P. Taylor, K. Julian, T. Hastie and C. Duffy. 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters. 1:91-102.
Pelletier, D., J. A. García-Charton, J. Ferraris, G. David, O. Thébaud, Y. Letourneur, J. Claudet, M. Amand, M. Kulbicki, and R. Glazon. (2005). Designing indicators for assessing the effects of marine protected areas on coral reef ecosystems: A multidisciplinary standpoint. Aquatic Living Resources 18: 15-33.
Petrosillo, I., G. Zurlini, M. E. Corliano, N. Zaccarelli and M. Dadamo. 2007. Tourist perception of recreational environment and management in a marine protected area. Landscape and Urban Planning. 79:29-37.
Pollnac, R., P. Christie, J. E. Cinner, T. Dalton, T. M. Daw, G. E. Forrester, N. A. J. Graham, and T. R. McClanahan. (2010). Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems. PNAS Early Edition: 1-4.
Richardson, E. A., M. J. Kaiser, G. Edwards-Jones and H. P. Possingham. 2006. Sensitivity of Marine-Reserve Design to the Spatial Resolution of Socioeconomic Data. Conservation Biology. 20:1191-1202.
Salz, R. J. and D. K. Loomis. 2004. Saltwater anglers' attitudes towards marine protected areas. Fisheries. 29:10-17.
Scholz, A., K. Bonzon, R. Fujita, N. Benjamin, N. Woodling, P. black, and C. Streinback. 2004. Participatory socioeconomic analysis: drawing on fishermen's knowledge for marine protected area planning in California. Marine Policy. 28(4): 335-349.
Smith, M. D. and J.E. Wilen. 2003. Economic impacts of marine reserves: the importance of spatial behavior. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46: 183-206.
Smith, M. D., J. Lynham, J. N. Sanchirico, and J. A. Wilson. (2010). Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Weible, C. M. 2007. An advocacy coalition framework approach to stakeholder analysis: understanding the political context of California marine protected area policy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 17:95-117.
Weible, C. M. (2005). Beliefs and Perceived Influence in a Natural Resource Conflict: An Advocacy Coalition Approach to Policy Networks. Political Research Quarterly 58(3): 461-475.
Weible, C. M. and P. A. Sabatier. 2005. Comparing policy networks: Marine protected areas in California. The Policy Studies Journal. 33:181-201.
Weible, C., P. A. Sabatier and M. Lubell. 2004. A Comparison of a Collaborative and Top-Down Approach to the use of Science in Policy: Establishing Marine Protected Areas in California. Policy Studies Journal 32(2): 187.
White, C., B. E. Kendall, S. D. Gaines, D. A. Siegel and C. Costello. 2008. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit. Ecology Letters. 11:370-379.
Becker, B. J., L. A. Levin, F. J. Fodrie and P. A. McMillan. 2007. Complex larval connectivity patterns among marine invertebrate populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104:3267-3272.
Beldade, R., R. Borges, and E. J. Gonçalves. (2006). Depth distribution of nearshore temperate fish larval assemblages near rocky substrates. Journal of Plankton Research 28(11): 1003-1013.
Berkeley, S. A., C. Chapman and S.M. Sogard. 2004. Maternal Age as a Determinant of Larval Growth and Survival in a Marine Fish, Sebastes Melanops. Ecology. 85(5): 1258-1264.
Berkeley, S. A., M. A. Hixon, R. J. Larson and M. S. Love. 2004. Fisheries Sustainability via Protection of Age Structure and Spatial Distribution of Fish Populations. Fisheries 29(8): 23-32.
Blanchette, C. A., B. R. Broitman and S. D. Gaines. 2006. Intertidal community structure and oceanographic patterns around Santa Cruz Island, CA, USA. Marine Biology. 149:689-701.
Bobko, S.J. and S.A. Berkeley. 2004. Maturity, ovarian cycle, fecundity, and age-specific parturition of black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Fisheries Bulletin 102:418-429.
Botsford, L. W. 2001. Physical influences on recruitment to California Current invertebrate populations on multiple scales. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 58:1081-1091.
Broitman, B. R., C. A. Blanchette, and S. D. Gaines. (2007). Recruitment of intertidal invertebrates and oceanographic variability at Santa Cruz Island, California, U.S.A.: 1-24.
Broitman, B. R., C. A. Blanchette, B. A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, C. Krenz, M. Foley, P. T. Raimondi, D. Lohse and S. D. Gaines. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of invertebrate recruitment along the west coast of the United States. Ecological Monographs. 78:403-421.
Brown, C. A., G. A. Jackson, S. A Holt, G. J. Holt. (2005). Spatial and temporal patterns in modeled particle transport to estuarine habitat with comparisons to larval fish settlement patterns. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64: 33-46.
Christie, M. R., D. W. Johnson, C. D. Stallings, and M. A. Hixon. (2010). Self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction amid extensive gene flow in a coral-reef fish. Molecular Ecology 19: 1042-1057.
Cowen, R. K. and S. Sponaugle. 2009. Larval Dispersal and Marine Population Connectivity. Annual Review of Marine Science. 1:443-466.
Cudney-Bueno, R., M. F. Lavin, S. G. Marinone, P. T. Raimondi and W. W. Shaw. 2009. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal. Public Library of Science One. 4:1-7.
Fisher, R., S. M. Sogard and S. A. Berkeley. 2007. Trade-offs between size and energy reserves reflect alternative strategies for optimizing larval survival potential in rockfish. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 344:2657-270.
Fodrie, F. J. and L. A. Levin. (2008). Linking juvenile habitat utilization to population dynamics of California halibut. Limnology and Oceanography 53(2): 799-812.
Grantham, B.A., G.L. Eckert, and A.L. Shanks. 2003. Dispersal Potential of Marine Invertebrates in Diverse Habitats. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S108-S116.
Hamilton, S. L., J. Regetz, R. R. Warner. (2008). Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish. PNAS 105(5): 1561-1566.
Jessopp, M. J. and R. J. McAllen. 2007. Water retention and limited larval dispersal: implications for short and long distance dispersers in marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 333:27-36.
Johansson, M. L., M. A. Banks, K. D. Glunt, H. M Hassel-Finnegan, and V. P. Buonaccorsi. (2008). Influence of habitat discontinuity, geographical distance, and oceanography on fine-scale population genetic structure of copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus). Molecular Ecology 17: 3051-3061.
Kaplan, D. M. 2006. Alongshore advection and marine reserves: consequences for modeling and management. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 309:11-24.
Kinlan, B. P., S. D. Gaines and S. E. Lester. 2005. Propagule dispersal and the scales of marine community process. Diversity and Distributions. 11:139-148.
Largier, J.L. 2003. Considerations in Estimating Larval Dispersal Distances From Oceanographic Data. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S71-S89.
Leslie, H., E. N. Breck, F. Chan, J. Lubchenco, and B. A. Menge. (2005). Barnacle reproductive hotspots linked to nearshore ocean conditions. PNAS 102(30): 10534-10539.
Lester, S. E., B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines and B. P. Kinlan. 2007. The relationship between dispersal ability and geographic range size. Ecology Letters. 10:745-758.
Love, M. S., D. M. Schroeder and W. H. Lenarz. 2005. Distribution of boccacio (Sebastes paucispinis) and cowcod (Sebastes levis) around oil platforms and natural outcrops off California with implications for larval production. Bulletin of Marine Science. 77:397-408.
Mace, A. J. and S. G. Morgan. 2006. Larval accumulation in the lee of a small headland: implications for the design of marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 318:19-29.
McConnaughey, R. A., D. A. Armstrong, B. M. Hickey, and D. R. Gunderson. (1994). Interannual variability in coastal Washington Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) populations: larval advection and the coastal landing strip. Fisheries Oceanography 3(1): 22-38.
McCormick, T. B., L. M. Buckley, J. Brogan and L. M. Perry. 2008. Drift macroalgae as a potential dispersal mechanism for the white abalone Haliotis sorenseni. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 362:225-232.
Mitarai, S., D. A. Siegel and K. B. Winters. 2008. A numerical study of stochastic larval settlement in the California Current system. Journal of Marine Systems. 69:295-309.
Morgan, S. G. and J. R. Anastasia. 2008. Behavioral tradeoff in estuarine larvae favors seaward migration over minimizing visibility to predators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105:222-227.
Narvaez, D. A., S. A. Navarrete, J. L. Largier and C. A. Vargas. 2006. Onshore advection of warm water, larval invertebrate settlement, and relaxation of upwelling off central Chile. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 309:150-173.
Palumbi, S.R. 2004. Why Mothers Matter. Nature 430: 621-622.
Pelc, R. A., R. R. Warner, S. D. Gaines, and C. B. Paris. (2010). Detecting larval export from marine reserves. PNAS Early Edition: 1-6.
Planes, S., G. P. Jones and S. R. Thorrold. 2009. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106:5693-5697.
Rooper, C. N., D. R. Gunderson, B. M. Hickey. (2006). An examination of the feasibility of passive transport from coastal spawning grounds to estuarine nursery areas for English sole. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 68: 609-618.
Selkoe, K. A., A. Vogel and S. D. Gaines. 2007. Effects of ephemeral circulation on recruitment and connectivity of nearshore fish populations spanning Southern and Baja California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 351:209-220.
Shanks, A.L., B.A. Grantham, and M.H. Carr. 2003. Propagule Dispersal Distance and the Size and Spacing of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S159-S169.
Siegel, D. A., S. Mitarai, C. Costello, S. D. Gaines, B. E. Kendall, R. R. Warner and K. B. Winters. 2008. The stochastic nature of larval connectivity among nearshore marine populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105:8974-8979.
Tapia, F. J. and J. Pineda. 2007. Stage-specific distribution of barnacle larvae in nearshore waters: potential for limited dispersal and high mortality rates. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 342:177-190.
White, J. W., L. W. Botsford, A. Hastings, J. L. Largier. (2010). Population persistence in marine reserve networks: incorporating spatial heterogeneities in larval dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 398: 49-67.
Armstrong, C. W. and A. Skonhoft. 2006. Marine reserves: A bio-economic model with asymmetric density dependent migration. Ecological Economics. 57:466-476.
Botsford, L. W., D. R. Brumbaugh, C. Grimes, J. B. Kellner, J. L. Largier, M. R. O'Farrell, S. Ralston, E. Soulanille and V. Wespestad. 2009. Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 19:69-95.
Chittaro, P. M., I. C. Kaplan, A. Keller, and P. S. Levin. (2009). Trade-Offs between Species Conservation and the Size of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology.
Claessen, D., A. S. de Vos and A. M. de Roos. 2009. Bioenergetics, overcompensation, and the source-sink status of marine reserves. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 66:1059-1071.
Costello, C. and S. Polasky. 2008. Optimal harvesting of stochastic spatial resources. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 56:1-18.
Gardmark, A., N. Jonzen and M. Mangel. 2006. Density-dependent body growth reduces the potential of marine reserves to enhance yields. Journal of Applied Ecology. 43:61-69.
Gaylord, B., S. D. Gaines, D. A. Siegel and M. H. Carr. 2005. Marine reserves exploit population structure and life history in potentially improving fisheries yields. Ecological Applications. 15:2180-2191.
Gerber, L.R., L.W. Botsford, A. Hastings, H.P. Possingham, S.D. Gaines, S.R. Palumbi, and S. Andelman. 2003. Population Models for Marine Reserve Design: A Retrospective and Prospective Synthesis. Ecological Applications 13(1) Supplement: S47-S64.
Grafton, R. Q., T. Kompas and D. Lindenmayer. 2005. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty. Bulletin of Mathmatical Biology. 67:957-971.
Guénette, S. and T.J. Pitcher. 1999. An age-structured model showing the benefits of marine reserves in controlling overexploitation. Fisheries Research 39: 295-303
Hall, D. C., J. V. Hall and S. N. Murray. 2002. Contingent valuation of marine protected areas: southern California rocky intertidal ecosystems. Natural Resource Modeling. 15:335-368.
Hart, D. R. and M. P. Sissenwine. 2009. Marine reserve effects on fishery profits: a comment on White et al. (2008). Ecology Letters. 12:E9-E11.
Holland, D. S. 2002. Integrating marine protected areas into models for fishery assessment and management. Natural Resource Modeling. 15:369-386.
Kaplan, D. M. and L. W. Botsford. 2005. Effects of variability in spacing of coastal marine reserves on fisheries yield and sustainability. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 62:905-912.
Kaplan, D. M. 2009. Fish life histories and marine protected areas: an odd couple? Marine Ecology Progress Series. 377:213-225.
Kaplan, D. M., L. W. Botsford, M. R. O'Farrell, S. D. Gaines and S. Jorgensen. 2009. Model-based assessment of persistence in proposed marine protected area designs. Ecological Applications. 19:433-448.
Kellner, J. B., R. M. Nisbet and S. D. Gaines. 2008. Spillover from marine reserves related to mechanisms of population regulation. Theoretical Ecology. 1:117-127.
Langlois, T. J. and W. J. Ballantine. 2005. Marine ecological research in New Zealand: Developing predictive models through the study of no-take marine reserves. Conservation Biology. 19:1763-1770.
Levin, P. S., I. Kaplan, R. Grober-Dunsmore, P. M. Chittaro, S. Oyamada, K. Andrews and M. Mangel. 2009. A framework for assessing the biodiversity and fishery aspects of marine reserves. Journal of Applied Ecology. 46:735-742.
Malvadkar, U. and A. Hastings. 2008. Persistence of mobile species in marine protected areas. Fisheries Research. 91:69-78.
Mangel, M. 1998. No-take areas for sustainability of harvested species and a conservation invariant for marine reserves. Ecology Letters. 1:87-90.
Mangel, M. 2000. On the fraction of habitat allocated to marine reserves. Ecology Letters. 3:15-22.
Moffitt, E. A., L. W. Botsford, D. M. Kaplan and M. R. O'Farrell. 2009. Marine reserve networks for species that move within a home range. Ecological Applications. 19:1835-1847.
Pelletier, D., J. Claudet, J. Ferraris, L. Benedetti-Cecchi and J. A. Garcia-Charton. 2008. Models and indicators for assessing conservation and fisheries-related effects of marine protected areas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 65:765-779.
Pitchford, J. W., E. A. Codling and D. Psarra. 2007. Uncertainty and sustainability in fisheries and the benefit of marine protected areas. Ecological Modeling. 207:286-292.
Sethi, S. A. and R. Hilborn. 2008. Interactions between poaching and management policy affect marine reserves as conservation tools. Biological Conservation. 141:506-516.
Walters, C., R. Hilborn and R. Parrish. 2007. An equilibrium model for predicting the efficacy of marine protected areas in coastal environments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 64:1009-1018.
White, C. and B. E. Kendall. 2007. A reassessment of equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management. Oikos. 116:2039-2043.
Addessi, L. 1994. Human disturbance and long-term changes on a rocky intertidal community. Ecological Applications. 4:768-797.
Bellefleur, D., P. Lee, R. A. Ronconi. (2007). The impact of recreational boat traffic on Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus). Journal of Environmental Manangement: 1-8.
Benedetti-Cecchi, L., F. Pannacciulli, F. Bulleri, P. S. Moschella, L. Airoldi, G. Relini and F. Cinelli. 2001. Predicting the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance: large-scale effects of loss of canopy algae on rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 214:137-150.
Brown, P. J. and R. B. Taylor. 1999. Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 235:45-53.
Castilla, J. C. 1999. Coastal marine communities: trends and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 14:280-283.
Casu, D., G. Ceccherelli , M. Curini-Galletti and A. Castelli. 2006. Human exclusion from rocky shores in a mediterranean marine protected area (MPA): An opportunity to investigate the effects of trampling. Environmental Research. 62:15-32.
Coleman, F.C. , W.F. Figueira, J.S. Ueland and L.B. Crowder. 2004. The Impact of United States Recreational Fisheries on Marine Fish Populations. Scienceexpress. 3pp.
Cooke, S.J. and I.G. Cowx. 2004. The Role of Recreational Fishing in Global Fish Crises. Bioscience 54(9): 857-859.
Crain, C. M., K. Kroeker and B. S. Halpern. 2008. Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters. 11:1304-1315.
Fenberg, P. B. and K. Roy. 2008. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of size-selective harvesting: how much do we know? Molecular Ecology. 17:209-220.
Fisher, J. A. and K. T. Frank. 2004. Abundance-distribution relationships and conservation of exploited marine fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 279:201-213.
Forde, S. E. 2002. Modelling the effects of an oil spill on open populations of intertidal invertebrates. Journal of Applied Ecology. 39:595-604.
Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D'Argrosa, J. F. Bruno, K. S. Casey, C. Ebert, H. E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H. S. Lenihan, E. M. P. Madin, M. T Perry, E. R Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck, and R. Watson. (2008). A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems. Science 319: 948-952.
Jackson, J.B.C., M.X. Kirby, W.H. Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Botsford, B.J. Bourque, R.H. Bradbury, R. Cooke, J. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, T.P. Hughes, S. Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S. Lenihan, J.M. Pandolfi, C.H. Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner, R.R. Warner. 2001. Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems. Science 293(27): 629-638.
Kaustuv, R., A. G. Collins, B. J. Becker, E. Begovic and J. M. Engle. 2003. Anthropogenic impacts and historical decline in body size of rocky intertidal gastropods in southern California. Ecology Letters. 6:205-211.
Kido, J.S. and S.N. Murray. 2003. Variation in owl limpet Lottia gigantea population structures, growth rates, and gonadal production on southern California rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series 257: 111-124.
Lindberg, D. R., J. A. Estes and K. I. Warheit. 1998. Human influences on trophic cascades along rocky shores. Ecological Applications. 8:880-890.
Milazzo, M., R. Chemello, F. Badalamenti, R. Camarda, S. Riggio. (2002). The impact of human recreational activities in marine protected areas: what lessons should be learnt in the Mediterranean Sea? Marine Ecology 23(Supplement 1): 280-290.
Miller, E. F. 2007. Post-Impingement Survival and Inferred Maximum Thermal Tolerances for Common Nearshore Marine Fish Species of Southern California. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences. 106:193-207.
Moore, S. L. and M. J. Allen. 2000. Distribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Debris on the Mainland Shelf of the Southern California Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40:83-88.
Murray, S. N., T. G. Denis, J. S. Kido and J. R. Smith. 1999. Human visitation and the frequency and potential effects of collecting on rocky intertidal populations in Southern California marine reserves. CalCOFI Report. 40:100-106.
Parsons, D. M. and D. B. Eggleston. (2006). Human and natural predators combine to alter behavior and reduce survival of Caribbean spiny lobster. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 334: 196-205.
Pister, B. (2009). Urban marine ecology in southern California: the ability of riprap structures to serve as rocky intertidal habitat. Marine Biology 156: 861-873.
Planque, B., J. Fromentin, P. Cury, K. F. Drinkwater, S. Jennings, R. I. Perry and S. Kifani. 2010. How does fishing alter marine populations and ecosystems sensitivity to climate? Journal of Marine Systems. 79:403-417.
Roy, K., A. G. Collins, B. J. Becker, E. Begovic and J. M. Engle. 2003. Anthropogenic impacts and historical decline in body size of rocky intertidal gastropods in southern California. Ecology Letters. 6:205-211.
Saenz-Arroyo, A., C. M. Roberts, J. Torre, M. Carino-Olvera and J. P. Hawkins. 2006. The value of evidence about past abundance: marine fauna of the Gulf of California through the eyes of 16th to 19th century travellers. Fish and Fisheries. 7:128-146.
Smith, J. R. and S. N. Murray. 2005. The effects of experimental bait collection and trampling on a Mytilus californianus mussel bed in southern California. Marine Biology. 147:699-706.
Smith, J. R., P. Fong and R. F. Ambrose. 2008. The Impacts of Human Visitation on Mussel Bed Communities Along the California Coast: Are Regulatory Marine Reserves Effective in Protecting These Communities? Environmental Management. 41:599-612.
Sonnenholzner, J. I., L. B. Ladah and K. D. Lafferty. 2007. Cascading effects of fishing on Galapagos rocky reef communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 343:77-85.
Sonnenholzner, J. I., L. B. Ladah and K. D. Lafferty. 2009. Cascading effects of fishing on Galapagos rocky reef communities: reanalysis using corrected data. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 375:209-218.
Speckman, S. G., J. F. Piatt and A. M. Springer. 2004. Small boats disturb fish-holding marbled murrelets. Northwestern Naturalist. 85:32-34.