California Department of Fish and Wildlife
Aquatic Biological Assement

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Simuliidae Level 1 Level 2







Key Characters

"Black flies" or "buffalo gnats," shaped like little bowling pins. Caudal 1/3 distinctly swollen, retractable anal gills, attachment disk on posterior end. Labral fan used in filter feeding. Single prothoracic proleg (may help in feeding). Large chromosomes in salivary glands, used by researchers to difine "cytospecies."

Tolerance generally 6-7, can be as low as 3 (Simulium sp.)
Distribution CA, OR, WA, AZ, NV, Baja